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Computer-based techniques for Environmental design tend to be analytical. They are aimed at the Engineer who takes a previously designed building and then analyses the environmental performance of the building so as to be able to give performance requirements for servicing plant. Thus the building has been designed by an architect using experience and some broad background knowledge of environmental performance, but it is usually not until the analysis stage is reached that the building's environmental performance is accurately assessed. A sunlight design program (application) has been written to address this problem. This program is aimed at the designer and should allow them to assess quickly the sunlight characteristics of their building. The intention has been to produce a tool which is easy to understand and use: a tool which is i...
To illuminate the effect of titanium particles on osteoblast function, we compared the adhesion force of neonatal rat calvarial osteoblasts on fibronectin-coated glass after incubation with titanium particles (80% had diameters of less than 5 microm). The cells were incubated with the particles for 1.5-72 hours. Using a micropipette single-cell manipulation system, we showed that the adhesion force of the osteoblasts to fibronectin-coated glass (1.0 microg/ml) was significantly affected by the presence of particulate debris. The adhesion force of the cells incubated with titanium particles for less than 4 hours was not significantly affected by exposure to the particles; after 4 hours, however, it was significantly reduced relative to that of controls. Aspiration of particle-challenged osteoblasts into the micropipette demon...
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