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We develop a theory of the electronic structure and photophysics of interacting chains of $\pi$-conjugated polymers to understand the differences between solutions and films. While photoexcitation generates only the exciton in solutions, the optical exciton as well as weakly allowed excimers are generated in films. Photoinduced absorption in films is primarily from the lowest excimer. We are also able to explain peculiarities associated with photoluminescence, including delayed photoluminescence and its quenching by electric field.
We describe both pi-conjugated polymers and semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes because of the remarkable similarities in their behavior under photoexcitation. The common themes between these two seemingly different classes of materials are pi-conjugation, quasi one-dimensionality, and strong Coulomb interactions. Theoretical understanding of both systems requires going beyond traditional band theory. We present our current understanding of the electronic structures and excited state absorptions in both systems within a common theoretical model. Our aim is to give physical interpretations of experiments that have been performed and to give guidance to future experimental work.
Single-walled carbon nanotubes are strongly correlated systems with large Coulomb repulsion between two electrons occupying the same $p_z$ orbital. Within a molecular Hamiltonian appropriate for correlated $\pi$-electron systems, we show that optical excitations polarized parallel to the nanotube axes in the so-called metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes are to excitons. Our calculated absolute exciton energies in twelve different metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes, with diameters in the range 0.8 - 1.4 nm, are in nearly quantitative agreement with experimental results. We have also calculated the absorption spectrum for the (21,21) single-walled carbon nanotube in the E$_{22}$ region. Our calculated spectrum gives an excellent fit to the experimental absorption spectrum. In all cases our calculated exciton binding energies a...
Real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has become the most frequently used system for studies of gene expression. Manystudies have provided reliable evidence that the transcription levels of reference genes are not constant at different developmental stages and in different experimental conditions. However, suitable reference genes which are stably expressed in polyploid preimplantation embryos of different developmental stages have not yet been identified. Therefore, it is critical to verify candidate reference genes to analyze gene expression accurately in both diploid and polyploid embryos. We examined the expression levels of 12 candidate reference genes in preimplantation embryos of four different ploidies at six developmental stages. Stability analysis of the reference genes was performed by...
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