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As the only known example of complete organ regeneration in mammals, deer antler in the growing or velvet phase is of major interest in developmental biology. This regeneration event initiates from self-renewing antler stem cells that exhibit pluripotency. At present, it remains unclear how the activation and quiescence of antler stem cells are regulated. Therefore, in the present study proteins that were differentially expressed between the antler stem cells and somatic cells (facial periosteum) were identified by a gel-based proteomic technique, and analysed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. Several molecular pathways (PI3K/Akt, ERK/MAPK, p38 MAPK, etc.) were found to be activated during proliferation. Also expressed were the transcription factors POU5F1, SOX2, NANOG and MYC, which are key markers of embryonic stem cells. Ex...
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) have been shown to interact with antigen-presenting cells (APCs), especially dendritic cells (DCs). HSPs act as potent adjuvants, inducing a Th1 response, as well as antigen-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) via cross-presentation. Our previous work has demonstrated that Hsp70-like protein 1 (Hsp70L1), a new member of the Hsp70 subfamily, can act as a powerful Th1 adjuvant in a DC-based vaccine. Here we report the efficient induction of tumor antigen-specific T cell immune response by DCs pulsed with recombinant fusion protein of Hsp70L1 and Her2341–456, the latter of which is a fragment of Her2/neu (Her2) containing E75 (a HLA-A2 restricted CTL epitope). The fusion protein Hsp70L1–Her2341–456 promotes the maturation of DCs and activates them to produce cytokines, such as IL-12 and TNF-α, and chemok...
The combination of immunotherapy and chemotherapy is regarded as a promising approach for the treatment of certain types of cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms need to be fully investigated to guide the design of more efficient protocols for cancer chemoimmunotherapy. It is well known that danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) can activate immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs), via Toll-like receptors (TLRs); however, the role of DAMPs released from chemical drug-treated tumor cells in the activation of the immune response needs to be further elucidated. Here, we found that colorectal cancer (CRC) cells treated with oxaliplatin (OXA) and/or 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) released high levels of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). After OXA/5-Fu therapy, the sera of CRC patients also exhibit...
The extracellular potential of excitable and nonexcitable cells with respect to ground is ∼0 mV. One of the known exceptions in mammals is the cochlear duct, where the potential is ∼80–100 mV, called the endocochlear potential (EP). The EP serves as the “battery” for transduction of sound, contributing toward the sensitivity of the auditory system. The stria vascularis (StV) of the cochlear duct is the station where the EP is generated, but the cell-specific roles in the StV are ill defined. Using the intermediate cell (IC)-specific tyrosinase promoter, under the control of diphtheria toxin (DT), we eliminated and/or halted differentiation of neural crest melanocytes after migration to the StV. The ensuing adult transgenic mice are profoundly deaf. Additionally, the EP was abolished. Expression of melanocyte early marker and Kir4.1 in ...
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