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The branching-time temporal logic PCTL* has been introduced to specify quantitative properties over probability systems, such as discrete-time Markov chains. Until now, however, no logics have been defined to specify properties over hidden Markov models (HMMs). In HMMs the states are hidden, and the hidden processes produce a sequence of observations. In this paper we extend the logic PCTL* to POCTL*. With our logic one can state properties such as "there is at least a 90 percent probability that the model produces a given sequence of observations" over HMMs. Subsequently, we give model checking algorithms for POCTL* over HMMs.
We investigate requirements for a composition operator for complex control systems. The operator should be suitable for a context where we have both supervisory control and a system that consists of multiple (two or more) components. We conclude that using both passive (observing) and active (controlling) transitions is advantageous for the specification of supervisory control systems. We introduce a composition operator that meets the requirements. We give both operational and trace semantics for this operator and give necessary and sufficient conditions for commutativity and associativity.
The views of three different levels of management on strategic human resource issues in an Australian state health system are investigated. District and Human Resource managers have different perspectives from managers in the Corporate office in regard to vision and long term objectives, policy objectives, the extent to which Corporate office employs a consultative approach and consistency across Districts on HR functions. District Managers differ on a number of issues from those of Corporate managers, whereas differences between Human Resource managers and the Corporate division are even greater, and involve a wider range of issues. District Managers and Human Resource managers generally appear to hold similar opinions. Recommendations include that the Corporate office could adopt a consultative and inclusive management style which ...
This paper investigates the factors that influence the operationalisation of strategic human resource management and development in The Health System, a state health system in Australia. A survey was conducted among a sample of managers in all districts of The Health System. It indicates that the factors influencing the operationalisation of strategic human resource management and development, appear to be that vision and long term objectives do not seem to be clearly communicated to staff. There is not a close relationship between those that implement policy and those that devise it. Conflicts and contradictions exist either within or between policy and procedural documents that are to be implemented. Most managers are unsure if their staff is fully committed to implementing corporate strategic directions. Most of the recommendations...
Modifications of jet-like azimuthal correlations have revealed novel properties of the medium created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Experimental results on jet-like 2- and 3-particle correlations, specifically 'punch-through' at high transverse momentum, broadening at low and modest transverse momentum, and particularly the possible experimental evidence for conical flow, are reviewed. Future prospects of jet-like correlations and their physics potential are discussed.
A method is reported for the sensitive, simultaneous determination of mono-, di-, and trifluoroacetates by ion chromatography. These species were separated using a Dionex AS17 anion-exchange column employed with a potassium hydroxide gradient (via a Dionex EG40 Eluent Generator) and suppressed conductivity detection. The fluoroacetates were successfully separated from a range of inorganic and organic species likely to be present in environmental samples, in a total analysis time of 35 min (including re-equilibration of the column). Detection limits for mono-, di- and trifluoroacetate were 21, 38 and 36 micrograms/L, respectively, determined using a signal to noise ratio of 3, and were obtained using a sample injection volume of 50 microlitres. Precision was less than 0.83% relative standard deviation for replicate injections performed ...
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