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AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van hierdie proefskrif was om die veelvuldige veranderlikes wat betrokke is by gewysigde spleet rekenaartomografie (Tuned Aperture Computed Tomography (TACT)) te ondersoek in 'n poging om die beeldingsmodaliteit te optimaliseer in die diagnostiese opsporing van primere karies. Die proefskrif bestaan uit 'n ekstensiewe literatuur oorsig en word in 7 fases aangebied waarin die veranderlikes individueel geevalueer word. Tande is in gips ingebed en radiografiese opnames is gemaak met behulp van 'n digitale radiografiese sensor. As 'n voorvereiste vir TACT beelding is veelvuldige beelde uit verskillende projeksiehoeke van die tande gemaak. Die resulterende basisbeelde is dan gebruik om TACT snitte te produseer. Veranderlikes wat in die proefskrif getoets is, sluit die volgende in: 'n aantal herhalende...
A high-speed and hardware-only algorithm using a center of mass method has been proposed for single-detector fluorescence lifetime sensing applications. This algorithm is now implemented on a field programmable gate array to provide fast lifetime estimates from a 32 × 32 low dark count 0.13 μm complementary metaloxide-semiconductor single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) plus time-to-digital converter array. A simple look-up table is included to enhance the lifetime resolvability range and photon economics, making it comparable to the commonly used least-square method and maximum likelihood estimation based software. To demonstrate its performance, a widefield microscope was adapted to accommodate the SPAD array and image different test samples. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy on fluorescent beads in Rhodamine 6G at a frame rate ...
Fractal analysis was used to quantify changes in trabecular bone induced through the use of a rat tail-suspension model to simulate microgravity-induced osteopenia. Fractal dimensions were estimated from digitized radiographs obtained from tail-suspended and ambulatory rats. Fifty 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups of 24 ambulatory (control) and 26 suspended (test) animals. Rats of both groups were killed after periods of 1, 4, and 8 weeks. Femurs and tibiae were removed and radiographed with standard intraoral films and digitized using a flatbed scanner. Square regions of interest were cropped at proximal, middle, and distal areas of each bone. Fractal dimensions were estimated from slopes of regression lines fitted to circularly averaged plots of log power vs. log spatial frequency. The results showed that ...
OBJECTIVES: (1) To compare the effect of two different intra-oral image receptors on estimates of fractal dimension; and (2) to determine the variations in fractal dimensions between the femur, tibia and humerus of the rat and between their proximal, middle and distal regions. METHODS: The left femur, tibia and humerus from 24 4-6-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were radiographed using intra-oral film and a charge-coupled device (CCD). Films were digitized at a pixel density comparable to the CCD using a flat-bed scanner. Square regions of interest were selected from proximal, middle, and distal regions of each bone. Fractal dimensions were estimated from the slope of regression lines fitted to plots of log power against log spatial frequency. RESULTS: The fractal dimensions estimates from digitized films were significantly greater than ...
A high-speed and hardware-only algorithm using a center of mass method has been proposed for singledetector fluorescence lifetime sensing applications. This algorithm is now implemented on a field programmable gate array to provide fast lifetime estimates from a 32 × 32 low dark count 0.13 μm complementary metaloxide- semiconductor single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) plus time-to-digital converter array. A simple look-up table is included to enhance the lifetime resolvability range and photon economics, making it comparable to the commonly used least-square method and maximum-likelihood estimation based software. To demonstrate its performance, a widefield microscope was adapted to accommodate the SPAD array and image different test samples. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy on fluorescent beads in Rhodamine 6G at a frame rate ...
We investigate atomic force microscope nanolithography of single and bilayer graphene. In situ tip current measurements show that cutting of graphene is not current driven. Using a combination of transport measurements and scanning electron microscopy we show that, while indentations accompanied by tip current appear in the graphene lattice for a range of tip voltages, real cuts are characterized by a strong reduction of the tip current above a threshold voltage. The reliability and flexibility of the technique is demonstrated by the fabrication, measurement, modification and re-measurement of graphene nanodevices with resolution down to 15 nm.
Fluorescence lifetime of dye molecules is a sensitive reporter on local microenvironment which is generally independent of fluorophores concentration and can be used as a means of discrimination between molecules with spectrally overlapping emission. It is therefore a potentially powerful multiplexed detection modality in biosensing but requires extremely low light level operation typical of biological analyte concentrations, long data acquisition periods and on-chip processing capability to realize these advantages. We report here fluorescence lifetime data obtained using a CMOS-SPAD imager in conjunction with DNA microarrays and TIRF excitation geometry. This enables acquisition of single photon arrival time histograms for a 320 pixel FLIM map within less than 26 seconds exposure time. From this, we resolve distinct lifetime signatur...
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