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A method for linking any standard yeast artificial chromosomes (YAC) is described. YACs are introduced into the same cell and joined by mitotic recombination between the vector arms and the homologous sequence in a linking vector; several YACs can be recombined sequentially. The linking vectors also contain the beta-galactosidase gene as an expression reporter in mammalian cells.
We have investigated human male demographic history using 590 males from 51 populations in the Human Genome Diversity Project-Centre d'Étude du Polymorphisme Humain worldwide panel, typed with 37 Y-chromosomal Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and 65 Y-chromosomal Short Tandem Repeats and analyzed with the program Bayesian Analysis of Trees With Internal Node Generation. The general patterns we observe show a gradient from the oldest population time to the most recent common ancestors (TMRCAs) and expansion times together with the largest effective population sizes in Africa, to the youngest times and smallest effective population sizes in the Americas. These parameters are significantly negatively correlated with distance from East Africa, and the patterns are consistent with most other studies of human variation and history. In contras...
Background: Numerous genome-wide scans conducted by genotyping previously ascertained single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have provided candidate signatures for positive selection in various regions of the human genome, including in genes involved in pigmentation traits. However, it is unclear how well the signatures discovered by such haplotype-based test statistics can be reproduced in tests based on full resequencing data. Four genes (oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1), dopachrome tautomerase (DCT), and KIT ligand (KITLG)) implicated in human skin-color variation, have shown evidence for positive selection in Europeans and East Asians in previous SNP-scan data. In the current study, we resequenced 4.7 to 6.7 kb of DNA from each of these genes in Africans, Europeans, East Asians, and South Asia...
To identify sequences from the centromeric region, we have constructed a Drosophila melanogaster yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library and screened it with purified DNA from the minichromosome Dp(1;f)1187 derived from the X chromosome. We describe the structure of one clone isolated in this way. This YAC is structurally unstable and contains tandemly repeated G+C-rich 11-mer and 12-mer units, which we call dodeca satellite. Most of this satellite is located near the centromere of an autosome. Cross-hybridizing sequences are found in the genomes of organisms as distant as Arabidopsis thaliana and Homo sapiens.
Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom.
Copy number variants (CNVs) account for a major proportion of human genetic polymorphism and have been predicted to have an important role in genetic susceptibility to common disease. To address this we undertook a large, direct genome-wide study of association between CNVs and eight common human diseases. Using a purpose-designed array we typed ,19,000 individuals into distinct copy-number classes at 3,432 polymorphic CNVs, including an estimated ,50% of all common CNVs larger than 500 base pairs. We identified several biological artefacts that lead to false-positive associations, including systematic CNV differences between DNAs derived from blood and cell lines. Association testing and follow-up replication analyses confirmed three loci where CNVs were associated with disease—IRGM for Crohn’s disease, HLA for Crohn’s disease, rheuma...
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