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Marine algal toxins of the okadaic acid group can occur as fatty acid esters in blue mussels, and are commonly determined indirectly by transformation to their parent toxins by alkaline hydrolysis. Some data are available regarding the identity of the fatty acid esters, mainly of palmitic acid (16:0) derivatives of okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2). Other fatty acid derivatives have been described, but with limited mass spectral data. In this paper, the mass spectral characterization of the [M H]- and [M+Na]+ ions of 16 fatty acid derivatives of each of OA, DTX1 and DTX2 is presented. The characteristic fragmentation of [M+Na]+ ions of OA analogues provided a useful tool for identifying these, and has not been described previously. In addition, a set of negative ion multiple reaction monitoring (M...
Marine algal toxins of the okadaic acid (OA) group can occur as diol esters and sulfated diol esters in algae and as fatty acid esters in shellfish. Several of these ester forms have been identified, but the most common procedure for detecting OA group toxin esters is by measuring the increase in parent toxin after alkaline hydrolysis. Use of this alkaline hydrolysis method led to the discovery of high levels of conjugates of OA and dinophysistoxins-2 (DTX2) in seawater and of OA, DTX1, and DTX2 in blue mussel hepatopancreas (HP) from Flødevigen, Norway, during a bloom of Dinophysis spp. In the water sample, a C8-diol ester, a C9-diol ester, and a previously undescribed C8-triol ester of OA were characterized using HPLC-MS2, -MS3, and -MS4 in combination with various derivatization procedures. Palmitic acid (16:0) ester derivatives of ...
Pectenotoxins from marine dinoflagellates of the genus Dinophysis are rapidly hydrolyzed by many shellfish to give pectenotoxin-2 seco acid, which isomerizes to 7-epi-pectenotoxin-2 seco acid. Three series of fatty acid esters of pectenotoxin-2 seco acid (PTX-2 seco acid) and 7-epi-PTX-2 seco acid were detected by LC-MS analysis of extracts from blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from Ireland. The locations of the fatty acid ester linkages were identified by a combination of LC-MSn in positive- and negative-ion modes, LC-MS analysis of the products from reaction of the esters with sodium periodate, and NMR analysis of purified samples of the two most abundant ester derivatives. The 37-O-acyl esters of PTX-2 seco acid were the most abundant, followed by the corresponding 11-O-acyl esters, accompanied by low levels of the 33-O-acyl esters. Th...
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