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Ghrelin is a gastric peptide hormone and neurotransmitter, ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1). The hypothalamus was identified as the main source of ghrelin in the CNS, therefore the effects of the peptide have been mainly related to this part of the brain; numerous studies over the past decade demonstrate its importance in food intake, body-weight regulation and glucose homeostasis. Data about the existence of extrahypothalamic ghrelinergic neurons are still controversial, however the distribution of GHS-R1 outside the hypothalamus indicates that ghrelin also has an important role in the regulation of many other processes. The spectrum of functions and biological effects of ghrelin on neurons is remarkably wide and complex. It varies from modulation of the membrane excitability, to control of neurotransmitter...
Ghrelin - Growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) is involved in many important functions including growth hormone (GH) secretion and food intake. In this chapter, we explore existing nucleotide polymorphisms, transcriptional analysis, gene expression of the bovine GHS-R1a gene and its genetic association with growth and carcass traits in cattle. Firstly, we evaluated haplotype variety and characterized the microsatellite ((TG)n, 5’-untransrated region (UTR)) and nucleotide polymorphisms of the GHS-R1a gene in cattle. Nucleotide sequencing of this gene (~6 kb) revealed 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), four indels and the microsatellite ((GTTT)n, Intron 1). The 19 haplotypes were constructed from all nucleotide viability patterns and divided into 3 major groups. Four SNPs (L24V, nt456(G>A), D191N and nt667(C>...
Comment: LaTeX2e with iopart.cls, 84 pages, 19 figures (graphicx package), 374 updated references. Published in Reports on Progress in Physics, vol.62, pp. 395-464 (1999)
Comment: 20 pages, 14 figures, added some discussions
Comment: 13 pages, 9 figures, significantly revised. Published version in PTP
The effects of antibiotic combinations against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections frequently found in hospitalized patients were investigated. By means of an agar plate dilution checkerboard method, combinations of piperacillin-fosfomycin, cefoperazone-fosfomycin, and cefsulodin-fosfomycin were synergistic against 80.0, 85.0, and 82.6% of the strains tested. The mean fractional inhibitory concentration indices of piperacillin-fosfomycin, cefoperazone-fosfomycin, and cefsulodin-fosfomycin were 0.48, 0.42, and 0.46, respectively. The synergistic activities of these combinations were enhanced by the addition of a small amount of tobramycin, 0.25 micrograms/ml.
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