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Currently, there is no efficient way to estimate emissions from traffic on big transportation networks, such as the freeway links that connect downtown Los Angeles to the San Pedro Bay Ports complex. This transportation corridor is particularly vital because the ports handle more than a third of the U.S. container trade. Yet the economic vitality of this area is threatened by congestion and air pollution from freight operations.
We couple EMFAC with a dynamic mesoscopic traffic model to create an efficient tool for generating information about traffic dynamics and emissions of various pollutants (CO2, PM10, NOX, and TOG) on large scale networks. Our traffic flow model is the multi-commodity discrete kinematic wave (MCDKW) model, which is rooted in the cell transmission model but allows variable cell sizes for more efficient computations. This approach allows us to estimate traffic emissions and characteristics with a precision similar to microscopic simulation but much faster. To assess the performance of this tool, we analyze traffic and emissions on a large freeway network located between the ports of Los Angeles/Long Beach and downtown Los Angeles. Comparisons of our mesoscopic simulation results with microscopic simulations generated by TransModeler under ...
We couple EMFAC with a dynamic mesoscopic traffic model to create an efficient tool for generating information about traffic dynamics and emissions of various pollutants (CO2, PM10, NOX, and TOG) on large scale networks. Our traffic flow model is the multi-commodity discrete kinematic wave (MCDKW) model, which is rooted in the cell transmission model but allows variable cell sizes for more efficient computations. This approach allows us to estimate traffic emissions and characteristics with a precision similar to microscopic simulation but much faster. To assess the performance of this tool, we analyze traffic and emissions on a large freeway network located between the ports of Los Angeles/Long Beach and downtown Los Angeles. Comparisons of our mesoscopic simulation results with microscopic simulations generated by TransModeler under ...
Individual xanthan molecules were prepared on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface with a modified spin-casting technique. Then the radial compression elasticity of single xanthan molecules was investigated by vibrating scanning polarization force microscopy. The effective elastic moduli of xanthan molecules are estimated to be ∼20-100 MPa under loads below 0.4 nN.
Effects of substrate hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity on height measurement of individual ds-DNA molecules are investigated with tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TMAFM) and vibrating mode scanning polarization force microscopy (VSPFM). The measured heights of ds-DNA on hydrophobic highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) are remarkably less than those on hydrophilic bare mica and Ni²⁺ treated mica in both TMAFM and VSPFM. By analysing the results, we propose that the hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity of substrate can greatly influence the height measurement of DNA molecules.
In this paper, a new approach is demonstrated to measure the compression elasticity of single biomolecule in small force regime (<0.5 nN) using vibrating mode scanning polarization force microscopy (VSPFM). With this method we investigate the compression elasticity of a single DNA molecule in the radial direction (perpendicular to DNA strands). The radial deformation of DNA molecules deposited on mica surface is shown to be able to reach about 50% under external load, and this remarkable deformation is reversible. In addition, the compression spring constant of DNA molecules is estimated to be about 0.6 nN/nm according to the height-force curves.
Regulators concerned with traffic related emissions on large networks should consider allowing modelers to use mesoscopic traffic models (such as the MCDKW model) that can adequately represent congestion along with appropriate emissions models. This would simplify regulatory analyses, reduce errors, and cut costs.
We couple EMFAC with a dynamic mesoscopic traffic model to create an efficient tool for generating information about traffic dynamics and emissions of various pollutants (CO2, PM10, NOX, and TOG) on large scale networks. Our traffic flow model is the multi-commodity discrete kinematic wave (MCDKW) model, which is rooted in the cell transmission model but allows variable cell sizes for more efficient computations. This approach allows us to estimate traffic emissions and characteristics with a precision similar to microscopic simulation but much faster. To assess the performance of this tool, we analyze traffic and emissions on a large freeway network located between the ports of Los Angeles/Long Beach and downtown Los Angeles. Comparisons of our mesoscopic simulation results with microscopic simulations generated by TransModeler under ...
The serum test for the secreted protease prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the most widely used screening tool for prostate cancer. The PSA gene contains multiple functional and nonfunctional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in its promoter. We showed previously that the rs925013 G/A SNP, but not the rs266882 G/A SNP, was significantly associated with serum PSA in healthy men. In this study, we evaluated the association of the PSA promoter genotype with clinical data in a cohort of 1,224 men with prostate cancer. Previous work with a subset of this cohort has shown that percent high-grade (Gleason grades 4 and 5) cancer was the strongest predictor of biochemical recurrence (PSA relapse). We found a statistically significant association (P < 0.05) of the rs925013 SNP with several clinical and histomorphologic variables. The G alle...
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