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Commercially available lactase (β-D-galactoside galactohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.23) enzymes produced from Kluyveromyces fragilis and Kluyveromyces lactis were accessed as catalysts for use in the production of β-galactopyranosides of various alcohols using lactose as galactosyl donor. The yield of galactoside was enhanced by using the highest practical concentrations of both lactose and alcohol acceptor. The concentrations and thus yield, were limited by the solubility of the substrates. The increase in galactoside yield with increasing lactose concentration appeared to be specific to the lactose substrate and not due to water activity alterations, because addition of maltose to a fixed concentration of lactose had no effect. During the course of the reaction, the yield of galactoside peaked after around 70% to 80% of the lactose was ...
The resorcylic acid lactones zearalenone (1), α-zearalenol (2), β-zearalenol (3), α-zearalanol (zeranol) (4), β-zearalanol (taleranol) (5), and zearalanone (6) were converted to their glucuronides on a preparative scale in good yields. Reactions were conducted with bovine uridine 5′-diphosphoglucuronyl transferase (UDPGT) as catalyst and uridine 5′-diphosphoglucuronic acid (UDPGA) as cofactor. The glucuronides were isolated by column chromatography and characterized by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Although the principal products were 4-O-glucuronides (i.e., linkage through a phenolic hydroxyl), significant quantities of the 6′-O-glucuronides (i.e., linkage through the aliphatic hydroxyl) of alcohols 2, 4, and 5 were also isolated. In the case of 3, the 2-O-glucuronide was isolated as the minor product. Overall isolated yield...
Background: Some apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) varieties have attractive striping patterns, a quality attribute that is important for determining apple fruit market acceptance. Most apple cultivars (e.g. ‘Royal Gala’) produce fruit with a defined fruit pigment pattern, but in the case of ‘Honeycrisp’ apple, trees can produce fruits of two different kinds: striped and blushed. The causes of this phenomenon are unknown. Results: Here we show that striped areas of ‘Honeycrisp’ and ‘Royal Gala’ are due to sectorial increases in anthocyanin concentration. Transcript levels of the major biosynthetic genes and MYB10, a transcription factor that upregulates apple anthocyanin production, correlated with increased anthocyanin concentration in stripes. However, nucleotide changes in the promoter and coding sequence of MYB10 do not correlate wi...
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