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This report describes the first isolation and partial characterization of a herpesvirus from the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). The virus was isolated during a disease outbreak in a group of young seals nursed in a seal orphanage in The Netherlands. Almost half of the seals died with symptoms of acute pneumonia and focal hepatitis and the virus was isolated of organs of most of the dead animals. Seven out of ten seals of which paired serum samples were obtained showed seroconversion in a virus neutralization test during this outbreak. The virus was tentatively characterized as a herpesvirus (seal herpesvirus: SeHV or phocid herpesvirus 1) on the basis of its characteristic morphology in electron microscopy, buoyant density in sucrose, sensitivity to ether and heat treatment and its antigenic relationship with other probable members of t...
Commercial rabies vaccines, used by veterinarians in the Netherlands, were collected for testing in the mouse potency test. Of the six vaccines tested, two were clearly below the minimal requirements for potency of 1.0 IU. Of these six vaccines the rabies virus glycoprotein (GP) and nucleoprotein (NP) contents were determined in an antigen competition ELISA. The GP content proved to correlate well with the potency found in the mouse potency test (r = 0.95, p < 0.01), whereas no such correlation was found for the NP content (r approximately 0, p > 0.05). After the manufacturers were told about the results, one of the two vaccines that did not comply with the requirements was withdrawn from the market. Measurement of the GP content of a second lot of the remaining vaccines indicated that sufficiently high levels of GP were present in all...
An in vitro system of poliovirus-specific antibody production by peripheral blood B cells on stimulation by the virus has been developed. Virus-neutralizing antibodies in culture supernatant fluids, or virus-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) were detected by microneutralization assay and ELISA-SPOT test, respectively. After booster immunization with polio vaccine, anti-poliovirus-neutralizing ASC were present in circulation. This response was measurable between 5 and 12 days after booster vaccination. At between 12 and 90 days, another subset of B cells was found in peripheral blood that only produced poliovirus-specific neutralizing antibody after in vitro antigenic stimulation. The in vitro virus-induced response required B cells, monocytes, and T4+ (T helper) cells, and was shown to result from de novo protein synthesis. The a...
In the present report an in vitro method for obtaining a secondary human antibody response to a dog kidney cell vaccine against rabies virus (DKCV) is described. Cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from normal rabies-immune and nonimmune donors were stimulated in vitro by DKCV. The production of virus-specific antibody in supernatant fluids was monitored by ELISA. Antibody was produced by lymphocytes from rabies-immune individuals, whereas those of nonimmune subjects consistently failed to produce anti-rabies antibodies after in vitro stimulation with DKCV. The generation of the anti-rabies virus antibody response of lymphocytes stimulated with DKCV was shown to be an antigen-dependent, as well as an antigen-specific process. Optimal antigen-specific responses were observed at relatively low concentrations of antigen (10(-1)...
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