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The objective of this thesis is to examine the role of paths for the spread of infectious diseases on complex networks. We demonstrate the importance of paths in the context of epidemiology for the case of static and temporal networks. As a central result, we introduce the unfolding accessibility method, that allows for the analysis of the path structure of temporal networks. In this thesis, we analyze the impact of two particular attributes of static networks on the properties of their path structure. As a case study, we analyze the properties of a livestock trade network in Germany. This network exhibits a giant component and a modular structure. The main findings here are that networks close to the percolation threshold are likely to show two disjoint risk classes for the nodes and, a modular structure causes a significant delay ...
In this work single polymer molecules adsorbed onto substrate surfaces were investigated by scanning force microscopy (SFM). The focus was on the shape (conformation) of the molecules, which is of central importance in polymer physics. It is commonly investigated in solutions and with scattering methods. Conformations on surfaces are only little investigated thus far. Often a behavior according to the so-called worm-like chain model is assumed. It is based on the assumption that chain bending results entirely from thermal fluctuations so that the overall chain shape can be described by statistical mechanics. For several model systems single molecules were imaged and the conformation was determined from the images. It was found that the idealistic wormlike chain behavior is only valid for a few systems. Deviations are ofte...
The electric microfield distributions (EMDs) and its tails have been studied for electron one-component plasma (OCP), electron-positron, hydrogen and single-ionized alkali two-component plasmas (TCP) in a frame of different pseudopotential models (PM) and compared with Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Monte-Carlo simulations as well as with experiments. The theoretical methods used for calculation of EMDs are a coupling-parameter integration technique (CPIT) developed by C. A. Iglesias for OCP and the generalized CPIT proposed by J. Ortner et al. for TCP. We studied the EMDs in a frame of the screened Kelbg, Deutsch, Hellmann-Gurskii-Krasko (HGK) PMs which take into account quantum-mechanical, screening effects and the ion shell structure (HGK) due to the Pauli exclusion principle. The screening effects were introduced on a base o...
Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures, Latex
Typical man-made locomotive devices use reversible gears, as cranks, for transforming reciprocating motion into directed one. Such gears are holonomic and have the transduction efficiency of unity. On the other hand, a typical gear of molecular motors is a ratchet rectifier, which is irreversible. We discuss what properties of rectifier mostly influence the transduction efficiency and show that an apliance which locks under backwards force can achieve the energetic efficiency of unity, without approaching reversibility. A prototype device based on ratchet principle is discussed.
The Levy-flight dynamics can stem from simple random walks in a system whose operational time (number of steps n) typically grows superlinearly with physical time t. Thus, this processes is a kind of continuous-time random walks (CTRW), dual to usual Scher-Montroll model, in which $n$ grows sublinearly with t. The models in which Levy-flights emerge due to a temporal subordination let easily discuss the response of a random walker to a weak outer force, which is shown to be nonlinear. On the other hand, the relaxation of en ensemble of such walkers in a harmonic potential follows a simple exponential pattern and leads to a normal Boltzmann distribution. The mixed models, describing normal CTRW in superlinear operational time and Levy-flights under the operational time of subdiffusive CTRW lead to paradoxical diffusive behavior, simil...
We discuss a problem of optimization of the energetic efficiency of a simple rocked ratchet. We concentrate on a low-temperature case in which the particle's motion in a ratchet potential is deterministic. We show that the energetic efficiency of a ratchet working adiabatically is bounded from above by a value depending on the form of ratchet potential. The ratchets with strongly asymmetric potentials can achieve ideal efficiency of unity without approaching reversibility. On the other hand we show that for any form of the ratchet potential a set of time-protocols of the outer force exist under which the operation is reversible and the ideal value of efficiency is also achieved. The mode of operation of the ratchet is still quasistatic but not adiabatic. The high values of efficiency can be preserved even under elevated temperatures.
The relaxation to equilibrium in many systems which show strange kinetics is described by fractional Fokker-Planck equations (FFPEs). These can be considered as phenomenological equations of linear nonequilibrium theory. We show that the FFPEs describe the system whose noise in equilibrium funfills the Nyquist theorem. Moreover, we show that for subdiffusive dynamics the solutions of the corresponding FFPEs are probability densities for all cases where the solutions of normal Fokker-Planck equation (with the same Fokker-Planck operator and with the same initial and boundary conditions) exist. The solutions of the FFPEs for superdiffusive dynamics are not always probability densities. This fact means only that the corresponding kinetic coefficients are incompatible with each other and with the initial conditions.
We show that a formal solution of a rather general non-Markovian Fokker-Planck equation can be represented in a form of an integral decomposition and thus can be expressed through the solution of the Markovian equation with the same Fokker-Planck operator. This allows us to classify memory kernels into safe ones, for which the solution is always a probability density, and dangerous ones, when this is not guaranteed. The first situation describes random processes subordinated to a Wiener process, while the second one typically corresponds to random processes showing a strong ballistic component. In this case the non-Markovian Fokker-Planck equation is only valid in a restricted range of parameters, initial and boundary conditions.
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