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The single shot damage thresholds of multilayer optics for highintensity short-wavelength radiation sources are theoretically investigated, using a model developed on the basis of experimental data obtained at the FLASH and LCLS free electron lasers. We compare the radiation hardness of commonly used multilayer optics and propose new material combinations selected for a high damage threshold. Our study demonstrates that the damage thresholds of multilayer optics can vary over a large range of incidence fluences and can be as high as several hundreds of mJ/cm This strongly suggests that multilayer mirrors are serious candidates for damage resistant optics. Especially, multilayer optics based on Li2O spacers are very promising for use in current and future short-wavelength radiation sources.
We investigated single shot damage of Mo/Si multilayer coatings exposed to the intense fs XUV radiation at the Free-electron LASer facility in Hamburg - FLASH. The interaction process was studied in situ by XUV reflectometry, time resolved optical microscopy, and “post-mortem” by interference-polarizing optical microscopy (with Nomarski contrast), atomic force microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microcopy. An ultrafast molybdenum silicide formation due to enhanced atomic diffusion in melted silicon has been determined to be the key process in the damage mechanism. The influence of the energy diffusion on the damage process was estimated. The results are of significance for the design of multilayer optics for a new generation of pulsed (from atto- to nanosecond) XUV sources.
We present an extended theoretical background of so-called fluence scan (f-scan or F-scan) method which is frequently being used for offline focused short-wavelength (XUV, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray) laser beam characterization (Chalupský et al. 2010 Opt. Express 18 27836). The method exploits ablative imprints in various solids to visualize iso-fluence beam contours at different fluence and/or clip levels. By varying the pulse energy, an f-scan curve (clip level as a function of the contour area) can be generated for a general non-Gaussian beam. The fluence scan method greatly facilitates transverse characterization of focused non-Gaussian beams and provides important information about energy distribution within the beam profile. Here we for the first time discuss fundamental properties of the f-scan function and its inverse counterpa...
Amplitude-division beam splitters for XUV radiation sources have been developed and extensively characterized. Mo/Si multilayer coatings were deposited on 50 nm-thick SiN membranes. By changing the multilayer structure (periodicity, number of bilayers, etc.) the intensity of the reflected and transmitted beams were optimized for selected incident radiation parameters (wavelength, incident angle). The developed optical elements were characterized by means of XUV reflectometry and transmission measurements, atomic force microscopy and optical interferometry. Special attention was paid to the spatial homogeneity of the optical response and reflected beam wavefront distortions. Here the results of the characterization are presented and improvements required for advanced applications at XUV free-electron lasers are identified. A flatness as...
We present the results of an experiment where amorphous carbon was irradiated by femtosecond x-ray free electron laser pulses. The 830 eV laser pulses induce a phase transition in the material which is characterized ex-situ. The phase transition energy threshold is determined by measuring the surface of each irradiated area using an optical Nomarski microscope. The threshold fluence is found to be 282 +/- 11 mJ/cm^2, corresponding to an absorbed dose at the surface of 131 +/-5 meV/atom. Atomic force microscopy measurements show volume expansion of the irradiated sample area, suggesting a solid to solid phase transition. Deeper insight into the phase transition is gained by using scanning photoelectron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Photoelectron microscopy shows graphitization, i.e. modification from sp3 to sp2 hybridizatio...
In this article, we describe the experimental station and procedures for investigating the interaction of short-wavelength free-electron lasers (FELs) pulses with solids. With the advent of these sources, a unique combination of radiation properties (including wavelength range from tens of nanometers down to sub-Angstroms, femtosecond pulse duration, and high pulse energy reaching milli-Joules level) creates new research possibilities for the systematic studies of radiation-induced structural changes in solids. However, the properties of the intense FEL radiation generate, apart from the new experimental opportunities, extreme demands on the experimental set-up (mostly in terms of radiation hardness of detectors and their saturation levels). Thus, radiation-induced phase transitions in solids, beyond the fundamental scientific interest...
We studied experimentally and theoretically the structural transition of diamond under an irradiation with an intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet laser (XUV) pulse of 24–275 eV photon energy provided by free-electron lasers. Experimental results obtained show that the irradiated diamond undergoes a solid-to-solid phase transition to graphite, and not to an amorphous state. Our theoretical findings suggest that the nature of this transition is nonthermal, stimulated by a change of the interatomic potential triggered by the excitation of valence electrons. Ultrashort laser pulse duration enables to identify the subsequent steps of this process: electron excitation, band gap collapse, and the following atomic motion. A good agreement between the experimentally measured and theoretically calculated damage thresholds for the XUV range s...
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