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We have measured, by x-ray backscattering, the lattice constant of four highly enriched Ge isotopes: A=70, 73, 74, and 76 at temperatures ranging from 8 to 300 K. Comparing with Ge-70, values of Deltaa/a ranged from -10 to -46 p.p.m. A good quantitative agreement over the whole temperature range (8-300 K) was found with values calculated from a theory that takes into account the zero point motion and the anharmonicity of the lattice.
We present the results of an experiment where amorphous carbon was irradiated by femtosecond x-ray free electron laser pulses. The 830 eV laser pulses induce a phase transition in the material which is characterized ex-situ. The phase transition energy threshold is determined by measuring the surface of each irradiated area using an optical Nomarski microscope. The threshold fluence is found to be 282 +/- 11 mJ/cm^2, corresponding to an absorbed dose at the surface of 131 +/-5 meV/atom. Atomic force microscopy measurements show volume expansion of the irradiated sample area, suggesting a solid to solid phase transition. Deeper insight into the phase transition is gained by using scanning photoelectron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Photoelectron microscopy shows graphitization, i.e. modification from sp3 to sp2 hybridizatio...
In this article, we describe the experimental station and procedures for investigating the interaction of short-wavelength free-electron lasers (FELs) pulses with solids. With the advent of these sources, a unique combination of radiation properties (including wavelength range from tens of nanometers down to sub-Angstroms, femtosecond pulse duration, and high pulse energy reaching milli-Joules level) creates new research possibilities for the systematic studies of radiation-induced structural changes in solids. However, the properties of the intense FEL radiation generate, apart from the new experimental opportunities, extreme demands on the experimental set-up (mostly in terms of radiation hardness of detectors and their saturation levels). Thus, radiation-induced phase transitions in solids, beyond the fundamental scientific interest...
We studied experimentally and theoretically the structural transition of diamond under an irradiation with an intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet laser (XUV) pulse of 24–275 eV photon energy provided by free-electron lasers. Experimental results obtained show that the irradiated diamond undergoes a solid-to-solid phase transition to graphite, and not to an amorphous state. Our theoretical findings suggest that the nature of this transition is nonthermal, stimulated by a change of the interatomic potential triggered by the excitation of valence electrons. Ultrashort laser pulse duration enables to identify the subsequent steps of this process: electron excitation, band gap collapse, and the following atomic motion. A good agreement between the experimentally measured and theoretically calculated damage thresholds for the XUV range s...
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of breast cancer defined by hormone receptor status have revealed loci contributing to susceptibility of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative subtypes. To identify additional genetic variants for ER-negative breast cancer, we conducted the largest meta-analysis of ER-negative disease to date, comprising 4754 ER-negative cases and 31 663 controls from three GWAS: NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) (2188 ER-negative cases; 25 519 controls of European ancestry), Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC) (1562 triple negative cases; 3399 controls of European ancestry) and African American Breast Cancer Consortium (AABC) (1004 ER-negative cases; 2745 controls). We performed in silico replication of 86 SNPs at P ≤ 1 × 10(-5) in an additional 11 209 breast cancer cases (946 with ER...
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