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We measure current by counting single electrons tunneling through an InAs nanowire quantum dot. The charge detector is realized by fabricating a quantum point contact in close vicinity to the nanowire. The results based on electron counting compare well to a direct measurements of the quantum dot current, when taking the finite bandwidth of the detector into account. The ability to detect single electrons also opens up possibilities for manipulating and detecting individual spins in nanowire quantum dots.
Using time-resolved Faraday rotation, the drift-induced spin-orbit Field of a two-dimensional electron gas in an InGaAs quantum well is measured. Including measurements of the electron mobility, the Dresselhaus and Rashba coefficients are determined as a function of temperature between 10 and 80 K. By comparing the relative size of these terms with a measured in-plane anisotropy of the spin dephasing rate, the D'yakonv-Perel' contribution to spin dephasing is estimated. The measured dephasing rate is significantly larger than this, which can only partially be explained by an inhomogeneous g-factor.
We use a nanowire quantum dot to probe high-frequency current fluctuations in a nearby quantum point contact. The fluctuations drive charge transitions in the quantum dot, which are measured in real-time with single-electron detection techniques. The quantum point contact (GaAs) and the quantum dot (InAs) are fabricated in different material systems, which indicates that the interactions are mediated by photons rather than phonons. The large energy scales of the nanowire quantum dot allow radiation detection in the long-wavelength infrared regime.
Existing national, racial, and ethnic differences in dialysis patient mortality rates largely are unexplained. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that mortality rates related to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in dialysis populations (DP) and in the background general populations (GP) are correlated. In a cross-sectional, multinational study, all-cause and ASCVD mortality rates were compared between GP and DP using the most recent data from the World Health Organization mortality database (67 countries; 1,571,852,000 population) and from national renal registries (26 countries, 623,900 population). Across GP of 67 countries (14,082,146 deaths), all-cause mortality rates (median 8.88 per 1000 population; range 1.93 to 15.40) were strongly related to ASCVD mortality rates (median 3.21, range 0.53 to 8.69), with Easter...
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