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BACKGROUND: Australian indigenous people have a body shape and cardiovascular risk profiles different from that of other ethnic populations. This present study aims to examine the association of anthropometric indices with diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia, and to determine what indices can best predict these individual risk factors for the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of Australian Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders. METHODS: A total of 747 Australian Aboriginal people and 439 Torres Strait Islanders aged 25 years and over were examined between 1993 and 1997. Body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, blood pressure, plasma glucose, triglycerides, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured. RESULTS: The best predictor of hypertension among five a...
Background Indigenous Australians have a high prevalence of obesity and an unacceptably high rate of cardiovascular disease. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 93 high-risk indigenous Australians to assess how strongly three anthropometric measures correlated with known cardiovascular risk factors. Results Both waist circumference and body mass index were strongly associated with important risk factors. The waist: hip ratio was less useful. Waist circumference was the only measure that significantly correlated with the urine albumin creatinine ratio (p=0.14; P=0.04). Conclusion Measuring the waist circumference is a cheap, effective way of monitoring cardiovascular risk.
Determination of an 'anaerobic threshold' plays an important role in the appreciation of an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test and describes prominent changes of blood lactate accumulation with increasing workload. Two lactate thresholds are discerned during cardiopulmonary exercise testing and used for physical fitness estimation or training prescription. A multitude of different terms are, however, found in the literature describing the two thresholds. Furthermore, the term 'anaerobic threshold' is synonymously used for both, the 'first' and the 'second' lactate threshold, bearing a great potential of confusion. The aim of this review is therefore to order terms, present threshold concepts, and describe methods for lactate threshold determination using a three-phase model with reference to the historical and physiological back...
Growing evidence suggests a prominent role of the complement system in the pathogenesis of cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases (CVD). Mannan-binding lectin-associated serine proteases (MASPs) MASP-1 and MASP-2 of the complement lectin pathway contribute to clot formation and may represent an important link between inflammation and thrombosis. MBL-associated protein MAp44 has shown cardioprotective effects in murine models. However, MAp44 has never been measured in patients with CVD and data on MASP levels in CVD are scarce. Our aim was to investigate for the first time plasma levels of MAp44 and MASP-1, -2, -3 concomitantly in patients with CVD. We performed a pilot study in 50 healthy volunteers, in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with one-vessel (n = 51) or three-vessel disease (n = 53) and age-matched controls with no...
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