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Since the late 1970s Saudi Arabia has experienced transnational terrorism in sporadic waves whose character has evolved over time. While most of the literature on these waves of terrorism focuses on religious extremism this dissertation argues that terrorism in Saudi Arabia, although framed in religious terms, is not the result of religious factors alone, but more importantly a function of external variables. Taking the role of religious extremism into consideration, this dissertation underlines the importance of external factors on the mobilization of transnational terrorist groups throughout the Islamic world and particularly in Saudi Arabia. It argues that religious extremist terrorism cannot be examined in isolation from the context of the developments that ignite it and revolutionize its doctrine. This dissertation examines three ...
Salah satu sebab langkanya sumber daya alam di dunia ini adalah semakin tingginya kebutuhan minyak dan gas (migas). Sementara tingginya migas tidak diimbangi dengan kapasitas produksi. Oleh sebab itu, dibutuhkan sumber daya energi yang terbaru yaitu turbin angin. Rumusan masalah dalam pembuatan turbin angin ini adalah “Adakah Hubungan Antara Panjang Lengan Dan Ratio Roda Gigi Dengan Daya Yang Dihasilkan Turbin” Rancang bangun turbin angin ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik daya yang dihasilkan dengan variabel bebas yaitu panjang lengan dan ratio roda gigi.Rancang bangun turbin angin ini menggunakan metode perancangan, perakitan, dan pengujian turbin angin. Pada pengujiannya digunakan 4 buah variabel bebas yang diuji di Desa Jembangan, Kecamatan Batangan, Kabupaten Pati. Hasil Penelitian rancang bangun ini dengan menggunakan v...
The global use of natural gas is growing quickly. This is primarily attributed to its favorable characteristics and to the environmental advantages it enjoys over other fossil fuels such as oil and coal. One of the key challenges in supplying natural gas is the form (phase) at which it should be delivered. Natural gas may be supplied to the consumers as a compressed gas through pipelines. Another common form is to be compressed, refrigerated and supplied as a liquid known as liquefied natural gas (LNG). When there is a considerable distance involved in transporting natural gas, LNG is becoming the preferred method of supply because of technical, economic, and political reasons. Thus, LNG is expected to play a major role in meeting the global energy demands. This work addresses the simulation and optimization of an LNG plant. First, the...
Environmental Economics&Policies,Economic Theory&Research,Crops&Crop Management Systems,Agricultural Knowledge&Information Systems,Consumption
A chiral tetrathiafulvalene (1) bearing a binaphtholdimethylene moiety on one side, an ethylenedithio substituent on the other side, is prepared from atropoisomeric (R)-, (S)- and racemic (R,S)-binaphthol. Its oxidation potential (0.49 V vs. SCE) allows for its oxidation with TCNQF4. Crystal structures of the neutral racemic (R,S)-1 and enantiopure (R)-1 were determined together with those of the enantiopure charge-transfer salts formulated as [(R)-1][TCNQF4]*CH2Cl2 and [(S)-1][TCNQF4]*CH2Cl2, the first enantiomeric salts of chiral TTFs with axial chirality. Despite the peculiar geometry adopted by the binaphthyl moieties in the constrained ten-membered ring in 1, stacking of the donor molecules is observed, both in the neutral state and in the TCNQF4 charge transfer salts where the (1)+˙ and (TCNQF4)−˙ radical species are associated, ...
Novel chiral tetrathiafulvalene derivatives incorporating one or two binapthol moieties are described where two flexible (Ar-O)-CH2-CH2-S-(TTF) links generate a large 14-membered ring on one or both sides of the TTF core. The symmetric donor molecule with two chiral binaphthol moieties has been prepared as enantiopure (RR) or (SS) isomer, as well as diastereomeric mixture containing the (RR), (SS), and meso (RS)double bond; length as m-dash(SR) forms. Other unsymmetrically substituted derivatives bearing one single chiral binaphthol substituent on one side were also prepared in their enantiopure (R) and (S) forms and as racemic mixture. X-ray crystal structure determinations of different donor molecules show that the TTF tend to associate into face-to-face dyads with a strong folding of the dithiole rings along the S⋯S hinge while the ...
Microstructure literature suggests common factors in liquidity measures. However, research on the intraday behaviour of liquidity commonality is scant. Because of higher information and inventory holding costs during the first and last half-hours of trading, we argue that liquidity covariations should increase during these half-hour trading periods. Our results from NYSE intraday data support a U-shaped pattern for liquidity covariation. These results have important implications for regulators, investors and academics.
Random amplified polymorphic DNA technique was used to compare genetic material from four females date palm and four unknown male trees of Egyptian date palm. The genetic similarity between the four females date palm (Zaghloul, Amhat, Samany and Siwi) ranged from 87.5 to 98.9%. The banding profiles obtained suggested that both males 3 and 4 are genetically related to the four female cultivars.
Mixed-valence dyadic [(TTF)(2)](+*) (TTF=tetrathiafulvalene) species--the elementary building blocks of organic conductors--are usually too weakly associated to be observed in solution, unless covalently bound in dimers or physically constrained into a cage structure. We demonstrate here that a novel chiral tetrathiafulvalene functionalised with two 1,1'-binaphthol units (1) is able to associate in solution into persistent mixed-valence [(TTF)(2)](+*) dyadic moieties through a stereospecific recognition pattern. This redox active molecule exhibits different electrochemical and spectroscopic responses, as enantiopure RR, SS or meso isomers, a rare example of a chiral system in which different diastereoisomers do not exhibit the same electrochemical features, with a selective formation of the mixed-valence species in the enantiopure (RR)...
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