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Abstract Part-time employment has become an extremely popular work arrangement in the Netherlands because it renders employment compatible with non-work activities. We posit that there may be a downside to part-time employment, which is related to its negative effects on workers’ career. This may be the case when firms use promotions to stimulate skill acquisition and human capital accumulation or when they base their work incentive schemes on performance measures that are affected by the number of hours worked or when they screen workers on the basis of the number of hours worked. Because promotions are an important source of wage growth, the low incidence of promotion among part-time workers may contribute to the emergence of the part-time wage penalty (i.e., the wage difference between a part-time worker and an otherwise equal full...
We consider new implicit-explicit (IMEX) Runge-Kutta methods for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws with stiff relaxation terms. The explicit part is treated by a strong-stability-preserving (SSP) scheme, and the implicit part is treated by an L-stable diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta methods (DIRK). The schemes proposed are asymptotic preserving (AP) in the zero relaxation limit. High accuracy in space is obtained by Weighted Essentially Non Oscillatory (WENO) reconstruction. After a description of the mathematical properties of the schemes, several applications will be presented.
This paper examines the gender composition of the flow of new hirees along the organizational hierarchy of jobs. We find that women have a reduced chance to be hired at higher hierarchical levels. We refer to this phenomenon as the “glass door”. The glass door consists of an absolute and a relative effect. First, there is a reduced probability of women being recruited for jobs at higher hierarchical levels. Second, a larger fraction of jobs below the focal level of hiring within the firm reduces the relative inflow of female hirees. The latter component leads women moving to firms in which the job has a lower relative position in the hierarchical structure. We explain the glass door phenomenon by a theoretical model of the firm’s decision to hire a woman. The model is based on two key assumptions. First, women have a higher probability...
This paper compares the hourly wage of employees who change jobs within their firm with that of workers who are hired from other employers in the external labor market. We use a Dutch data set of about 45 thousand workers who are employed at 1,838 firms over in the years 1997 and 1998. We have the following empirical results: Workers who moved internally are in the higher segments of the wage distribution, relative to externally-hired workers. The difference in wage narrows a bit when we relate the workers with internal mobility to the hirees who were previously employed with another firm (job-to-job movement). We find that the difference in wage between internal candidates and external candidates from other employers disappears if we correct for the workers’ observable characteristics. The empirical results indicate that on average t...
The Netherlands has been dubbed “the only part-time economy”. This expression reflects the popularity of part-time jobs in the country, particularly among working women. The beginning of the boom in Dutch part-time work can be traced back to the tripartite agreement of 1982 (the Wassenaar agreement), which dealt with issues concerning working-time reduction. Legislation that converted the option to work part-time into what was essentially a workers’ right was enacted during the 1990s. Since then, the incidence of part-time employment has been on the rise.
The paper empirically expounds the richness of the identity approach to labour-market behaviour by allowing individuals to experience identity conflict. Specifically, it investigates the relationship between the importance individuals attach to labour-market activities – which is influenced by the identity to which they adhere – and their preferences for job attributes. The analysis shows that individuals who consider labour-market success as instrumental for achieving their life goals tend to attach importance to job characteristics such as pay level and career and training opportunities. Individuals for whom non-labour-market activities are important and in conflict with labour-market activities are found to attach importance to the possibility of working on a convenient time schedule. Moreover, consistently with the identity approac...
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