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Power dissipation is a fundamental problem for nanoelectronic circuits. Scaling the supply voltage reduces the energy needed for switching, but the field-effect transistors (FETs) in today's integrated circuits require at least 60 mV of gate voltage to increase the current by one order of magnitude at room temperature. Tunnel FETs avoid this limit by using quantum-mechanical band-to-band tunnelling, rather than thermal injection, to inject charge carriers into the device channel. Tunnel FETs based on ultrathin semiconducting films or nanowires could achieve a 100-fold power reduction over complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) transistors, so integrating tunnel FETs with CMOS technology could improve low-power integrated circuits.
This paper discusses the electronic transport properties of nanowire field-effect transistors (NW-FETs). Four different device concepts are studied in detail: Schottky-barrier NW-FETs with metallic source and drain contacts, conventional-type NW-FETs with doped NW segments as source and drain electrodes, and, finally, two new concepts that enable steep turn-on characteristics, namely, NW impact ionization FETs and tunnel NW-FETs. As it turns out, NW-FETs are, to a large extent, determined by the device geometry, the dimensionality of the electronic transport, and the way of making contacts to the NW. Analytical as well as simulation results are compared with experimental data to explain the various factors impacting the electronic transport in NW-FETs.
Due to the increasing importance of modified electrodes for many applications in nanotechnology, including molecular electronics, bioelectronics, and sensors, there is a need to find ways to chemically attach suitable molecular films onto the electrodes. Combining the electroreduction of aryl diazonium salts with the Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction, a new modular technique to modify electrodes is presented. The new technique allows a wide range of functional groups to be introduced onto electrode surfaces with high surface coverage by the functional subunit. Various organic subunits, including redox chromophores, are successfully attached to platinum electrodes. The corresponding films are characterized using cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and contact-angle measurements. The electrore...
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