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This study identified six factors that contributed to the extent of change in general education observed between 1985 and 1992: policies related to assessment and general education adopted by the Illinois Board of Higher Education; external support; institutional leadership; strong internal commitment; conversion to semester systems; and accreditation demands. In addition, the study found that the majority of institutions in Illinois were reluctant to use student outcome measures as part of assessment efforts. Institutional interest in assessment provided an opportunity to clarify program goals and objectives and created opportunities for change to occur.
A series of 2- and 3-substituted indolequinone phosphoramidate prodrugs was synthesized and the biological activity evaluated. These prodrugs were designed to undergo enzymatic activation by DT-diaphorase (DTD) via quinone reduction and expulsion of the phosphoramidate substituent. The liberated phosphoramidate anion is capable of cross-linking DNA and is hypothesized to be the active species for this series of compounds. The interaction of these compounds with human DTD was investigated. All of the 2-substituted indolequinones are excellent substrates for DTD; while indolequinones substituted at the 3-position with bulky leaving groups are mechanism-based inactivators of DTD. Both series of analogs were demonstrated using 31P NMR to undergo rapid activation following two-electron reduction thus establishing a role for the activation o...
This work explores the complex plasmonic phenomena generated by Archimedean nanospirals. Arrays of gold nanospirals are fabricated with varying arm spacings and arm widths, as well as winding numbers ranging from 2 to 4π, to explore the spectral response of a non-symmetric, multiply reciprocating geometry. Scanning electron micrographs of nanospirals within these arrays, as well as graphically generated nanospirals, are then computationally simulated using finite-difference time-domain algorithms to explore the influence of the geometry on the organization of electric near-field enhancements. A spatially and spectrally logical organization arises from the increased control of the enhanced electric near-fields provided by this complex geometry. Unlike simple geometries, whose response is defined by resonant coupling with the driving ele...
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