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Detailed research on fossil rodents from Pakistan, Turkey, northern Africa and Europe provides a better understanding of the evolutionary history of the Muroidea, especially of the Murinae, Myocricetodontinae and Rhizomyinae. The origin of these rodent groups lies in the Early Miocene of south-western Asia. Their development seems to be enhanced by a changing environment induced by climate change. The Pakistani Murinae evolved rapidly during the Early and Middle Miocene and dispersed to many areas in the Late Miocene. Short periods with mammalian faunal exchange between Eurasia and northern Africa occurred between 20 and 16 million years ago, due to temporary land bridges. Only since 14 million years ago a permanent connection is present. The Murinae dispersed all over Europe 10 million years ago. They evolved rapidly and became a domi...
The assemblages found in the lignite mine of Kargı (Kargı 1, 2 and 3), Osmançik-Dodurga basin, Central Anatolia, contain a rich record of Late Oligocene and Early Miocene rodent species. Only the insectivore material of these assemblages has been formally studied before. The integrated faunal list of Kargı aids to the biostratigraphy of the Anatolian localities, which combined to the available tectonic and basin analyses, as well as the magnetostratigraphic studies, can provide a reliable dating of the localities. A large number of teeth (>300 molars and incisors) is examined; eight muroid genera and one dipodoid genus are identified in the Kargı assemblages, and described in detail; Meteamys alpani is the most frequent species found in the studied material and it is considered to be a characteristic species of the Oligocene/Miocene tr...
Milanković cycles and/or the related sea level fluctuations have been thought to be responsible for mammalian events (migrations and/or extinctions) on a large geographical scale. One of those events was the so-called ‘Wolf Event’. A recent find of Canis etruscus (this study) shows that the tribe Canini was dispersed further than Central-southern Europe, up to the Northwestern part of the continent. In addition it appears that palaeontologists have to reconsider the diachroneity of the ‘Wolf Event’, which seems that it occurred during a longer time span than originally thought. Moreover, extensive literature research combined with the study of several Dutch and other European faunal assemblages (Chilhac, Oosterschelde, Tegelen, Untermassfeld, Het Gat, Eurogeul and Maasvlakte-2) indicate that Mianković cycles and/or the related sea leve...
This chapter concerns Neogene insectivores from The Netherlands.
A remarkable aspect, in which the Asian Hexaprotodon (hippopotamus) differs from other fossil mammal taxa, is that in some localities they are abundant, while in other localities, which are fairly similar in faunal composition, their fossils are lacking completely or are very scarce. During geological-paleontological fieldwork in 1989 and 1990 in Pakistan near New Mirpur (Azad Kashmir), it turned out that in the upper part of the Plio-Pleistocene Samwal Formation fossils of hippopotamus are scarce, while in the lower part, also of Plio-Pleistocene age, in the same zoogeographical area and also in fluviatile sediments, they occur frequently To identify whether the presence or absence of hippopotamus in Asian localities can be explained on the basis of paleoecological factors a comparison is made between the sediments, the taphonomy and ...
A sample of fossil deer remains (genus Candiacervus) from Mavro Mouri cave, Crete, Greece is studied because a large proportion shows aberrant, seemingly pathological changes to the morphology and the structure of the bones. Here we show that the aberrant appearance of the Mavro Mouri bone sample can be understood through a simple taphonomical explanation: post-mortem damage to the bones inflicted by bearded vultures (Gypaetus barbatus). Hence they are not osteoporotically altered due to supposed malnutrition, as proposed before. This conclusion has a bearing on our understanding of island evolution, as it eliminates a supposed direct relation between persistent malnutrition on the one hand, and island dwarfing on the other.
During the 2007 ‘Kor en Bot’ collecting trip across the Oosterschelde (province of Zeeland, southwest Netherlands), on board trawler cutter ZZ10, a stem fragment of a fossil isocrinid was recognised amongst the contents of the nets pulled on deck. This specimen is here interpreted to be of Early Jurassic age and assignable to the genus Isocrinus. However, because only internodals are preserved in this pluricolumnal, specific identification cannot be but approximate (Isocrinus (Chladocrinus) cf. tuberculatus). In the absence of any outcrop of Jurassic deposits in Zeeland and adjacent Dutch and Belgian territory, the most likely explanation is that this crinoid represents erratic material transported by precursors of the presentday River Maas (Meuse). Between the Langres Plateau and Sedan (northeast France), this river cuts through sever...
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