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Oil palm empty fruit bunch graft poly (acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) superabsorbent composite (OPEFB-g-(PAA-co-PAM) SAPC) was synthesized by graft copolymerization of the acrylic acid (AA) and acrylamide (AM) comonomer onto OPEFB fibre using ammonium persulfate (APS) and N,N-methylene bisacarylamide (MBA) as an initiator and crosslinker, respectively. The absorbency in various chloride salt solutions indicated that the absorbency decreased with increasing ionic strength of the salt solutions. Moreover, the absorbency under load (AUL) of SAPC was investigated at various applied loading and results show that, AUL decreased with increasing applied loading. Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) were carried out to confirm the chemical structure and thermal properties of the synthesized superabsorbent, respectiv...
Introduction: Stress induced hyperglycaemia is prevalent in critical care. Tight glycaemic control is associated with significantly improved clinical outcomes. Providing tight control is difficult due to evolving patient condition and drug therapies. Model-based/derived methods (e.g. SPRINT) have shown significant mortality reductions. This research validates an improved metabolic control model and its parameters based on predictive capability for use in real-time glycaemic control.
Introduction: Severe sepsis and septic shock occur frequently in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and are a leading cause of admission, mortality and cost. Around 11-12% of all NZ and US ICU admissions are due to the more extreme cases of severe sepsis. Currently, the diagnosis of sepsis presents many challenges in a clinical setting. Sepsis treatment consists of antibiotic therapy with the use of fluid therapy and vasopressors. A positive blood culture for the specific sepsis type should precede the use of antibiotics and other therapies. Importantly, many of these therapies would be contra-indicated if sepsis wasn’t present. However, such blood culture results take 24-48 hours to process, by which time the disease may be advanced and more difficult to treat. Faster approximate diagnoses can be obtained in 4-8 hours using a variety of bi...
Glucocorticoids (GCs) have been shown to reduce insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals. Widely used in critical care to treat a variety of inflammatory and allergic disorders, they may inadvertently exacerbate stress-hyperglycaemia. This research uses model-based methods to quantify the reduction of insulin sensitivity from GCs in critically ill patients, and thus their impact on glycaemic control. A clinically validated model-based measure of insulin sensitivity (SI) was used to quantify changes between two matched cohorts of 40 intensive care unit (ICU) patients who received GCs and a control cohort who did not. All patients were admitted to the Christchurch hospital ICU between 2005 and 2007 and spent at least 24 hours on the SPRINT glycaemic control protocol. A 31% reduction in whole-cohort median insulin sensitivity was seen b...
Synthetic HA has excellent biocompatibility, but it has limited application due to its low toughness and flexural strength. In order to improve the mechanical properties (impact resistance, and tensile strength), metals and other elements were added to HA.
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