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The past two decades have seen rapid advancement of Lab on a Chip (LOC) systems with applications ranging from gas chromatography to capillary electrophoresis, and more recently to high-pressure chemistry and single cell analysis. For many applications in clinical medicine, biology and chemistry, silicon and glass may still be the preferred materials. The mechanical rigidity, chemical resistance, and low permeability properties of silicon and glass, combined with the optical transparency of glass, make them a good choice for many demanding LOC applications. The large and well developed silicon and glass micromachining toolbox provide the capability to obtain microstructures with high precision and repeatability. In addition, scaling device dimensions down to the nanometer scale is relatively straight forward using silicon and glass mic...
During replication of the plasmid pT181, the initiator protein RepC is modified by the addition of an oligodeoxynucleotide, giving rise to a new form, RepC*. Here we show that during in vitro replication, RepC* is radioactively labeled, suggesting that the source of the RepC* oligodeoxynucleotide is the newly synthesized pT181 DNA. The RepC/RepC* heterodimer retains its ability to bind the pT181 double-strand origin and, therefore, it may act as a competitive inhibitor of the RepC homodimer during replication.
pT181 is a Staphylococcus aureus rolling circle plasmid that regulates its replication by controlling the synthesis of its dimeric initiator protein RepC/C and by inactivating the protein following its use in replication (A. Rasooly and R. P. Novick, Science 262:1048-1050, 1993). This inactivation consists of the addition of an oligonucleotide, representing several nucleotides immediately 3' to the initiation nick site, to the active site tyrosine of one of the two subunits, generating a heterodimer, RepC/C*. Previous results suggested that the inactive form was metabolically stable and was present at a much higher level than the active form (A. Rasooly and R. P. Novick, Science 262:1048-1050, 1993). In the present study we have measured total RepC antigen as a function of plasmid copy number and have analyzed the interaction of the tw...
Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A (SEA) is a leading cause of food poisoning. The current test for functional activity of SEA requires monkeys or kittens. The major drawbacks of animal assays are lack of quantitation, poor reproducibility, low sensitivity, and high cost. In this report we describe and evaluate an alternative assay using T-cell proliferation to measure SEA activity in food. Human and rat lymphocytes proliferate in response to concentrations of SEA as low as 1 pg/ml, well below the pathogenic dose of 100 ng. This proliferation assay is highly sensitive, quantitative, and simple. Nonradioactive assays of T-cell proliferation were also suitable for detecting and measuring SEA, although with a 10-fold lower sensitivity. To evaluate the utility of this assay for food testing, four different food samples were mixed with SEA...
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