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Modern theory of foreign direct investment (FDI) identifies market frictions such as transport costs and tariffs as major obstacles to a firm's access to foreign markets and as important reasons for two-way FDI. An alternative rationale for two-way FDI is offered in the present paper from a theoretical examination of the relation between exchange rate risk and FDI. In a one sector two-country model, it is assumed that producers decide both the domestic and the foreign production capacities so as to maximize the utility function based on rates of return and real exchange rates. It is shown that two-way FDI occurs when deviations from the purchasing power parity are not significant. The higher the exchange rate volatility, the larger the ratio of FDI to export. Two-way FDI reduces the producers' exchange rate risk; under certain conditio...
With the increasing demand for modern digital circuit with fast edge rates and high clock frequencies, simultaneous switching noise has become a major concern. When many active devices switch at the same time, the switching noise generated can cause fluctuations or disturbances in the power distribution system (PDS) which, in turn, leads to a degradation of the signal integrity (SI). When this noise propagates along the waveguide like multi-layer printed circuit boards (PCBs), it will be coupled with other vias to affect the functionality of other circuits. This research work is focus on how to mitigate the noise propagation. The problem of SSN has been discussed intensively over the last decade and different approaches have been taken to mitigate it. Typical used methods include the placement of decoupling capacitors, the use of embe...
A 61-year-old female was referred to The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University (Hangzhou, China) due to a right adrenal tumor. A pre-operative transcutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy and right adrenalectomy were performed, and pathological analysis resulted in the diagnosis of pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Primary pleomorphic RMS of the adrenal gland in an adult is a rare condition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of pleomorphic RMS of the adrenal gland in an adult diagnosed by light microscopy and immunohistochemical stains.
Epigenetic regulation of genes by DNA methylation contributes to cancer. The present study sought to identify methylation changes in the promoters of E-cadherin and p14ARF, two genes with potential cancer roles promoting in skin squamous cell carcinoma. Skin squamous cell carcinoma specimens were collected from 40 patients and normal skin tissues were collected from 30 individuals as controls. Promoter methylation was detected for E-cadherin and p14ARF by methylation-specific PCR. Correlations between E-cadherin or p14ARF methylation and clinicopathological parameters were analyzed by the Spearman rank test. Methylation of E-cadherin (37.5%) and p14ARF (60.0%) was significantly more common in skin squamous cell carcinoma than in normal skin tissue (10.0 and 6.7%, respectively; P < 0.05). Additionally, E-cadherin and p14ARF methylation ...
This paper examines Chinese students' risk attitudes using selling and buying experiments with lotteries. We found that subjects were more risk averse during the buying experiment than during the selling experiment, suggesting an endowment effect. In the selling experiment, subjects were risk loving when there was a low win probability and risk averse with a high win probability, whereas they were risk averse in the buying experiment. Using the prize money won during the experiment as a measure of wealth, we found decreasing absolute risk aversion. Subjects' risk attitudes as revealed in the experiments explain their risky asset holding behavior.
This paper examines Chinese students' risk attitude using buying and selling experiments with lotteries. We found that subjects were more risk averse in the buying experiment than in the selling experiment, suggesting the endowment effect. In the selling experiment, subjects were risk loving when there was a low win probability and risk averse with a high win probability, whereas they were risk averse in the buying experiment. Using the prize money won during the experiment as a measure of wealth, we found decreasing absolute risk aversion. Subjects' risk attitude as revealed in the experiments explains their risky asset holding behavior.
The delay effect, that people discount the near future more than the distant future, has not been verified rigorously. An experiment conducted by us in China confirms that, by separating the delay from the interval, the delay effect exists only within a short delay. The results are reliable, because the rewards paid were very large, in order to elicit the subjects' true preferences. The interval and magnitude effects are also confirmed. Finally, subjects' procrastinating behavior, as reported in the questionnaire conducted at the end of the experiment, is explained by the time discount rates and the degree of the delay effect revealed in the experiment.
Accumulation of arsenic has potential health risks through consumption of food. Here, we inserted the arsenite [As(III)] S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase (ArsM) gene into the chromosome of Pseudomonas putida KT2440. Recombinant bacteria methylate inorganic arsenic into less toxic organoarsenicals. This has the potential for bioremediation of environmental arsenic and reducing arsenic contamination in food.
Reprogramming of somatic cells toward pluripotency involves extensive chromatin reorganization and changes in gene expression. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are key regulators of chromatin structure, cell identity, and development. In this study, we investigated the impact of Ezh2, a core subunit of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), on the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. We found that Ezh2 expression is induced during iPS cell generation and iPS cells contain high levels of Ezh2 mRNA and protein. Importantly, shRNA knockdown of Ezh2 during reprogramming severely impairs iPS cell generation. Mechanistically, Ezh2 acts during reprogramming at least in part through repressing the Ink4a/Arf locus, which represents a major roadblock for iPS cell generation. Interestingly, knockdown of Ezh2 in established pluripotent ...
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