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The neutron longitudinal and transverse asymmetries $A^n_1$ and $A^n_2$ have been extracted from deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons by a polarized $^3$He target at incident energies of 19.42, 22.66 and 25.51 GeV. The measurement allows for the determination of the neutron spin structure functions $g^n_1 (x,Q^2)$ and $g^n_2(x,Q^2)$ over the range $0.03 < x < 0.6$ at an average $Q^2$ of 2 (GeV$/c)^2$. The data are used for the evaluation of the Ellis-Jaffe and Bjorken sum rules. The neutron spin structure function $g^n_1 (x,Q^2)$ is small and negative within the range of our measurement, yielding an integral ${\int_{0.03}^{0.6} g_1^n(x) dx}= -0.028 \pm 0.006 (stat) \pm 0.006 (syst) $. Assuming Regge behavior at low $x$, we extract $\Gamma_1^n=\int^1_0 g^n_1(x)dx = -0.031 \pm 0.006 (stat)\pm 0.009 (syst) $. Combined with pre...
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