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Abstract: Background: Patients diagnosed with cancer are often treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy with curative intent. The transition from curative to palliative intent involves re-evaluation of treatment, and has to take into account the attitudes, beliefs and life aims of the patient. Objective: To discuss the difficulties in determining when to cease chemotherapy and radiotherapy in patients with advanced cancer. Discussion: The concept of treatment evaluation using a ‘burden versus benefit’ paradigm is discussed. Treatment aims must be in concordance with those of the patient, which are often couched in functional terms or linked to future significant life events. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can offer patients in the palliative phase of cancer illness, benefits in terms of relief of symptoms and meaningful prolonga...
Understanding the business value of IT has mostly been studied in developed countries, but because most investment in developing countries is derived from external sources, the influence of that investment on business value is likely to be different. We test this notion using a two-layer model. We examine the impact of IT investments on firm processes, and the relationship of these processes to firm performance in a developing country. Our findings suggest that investment in different areas of IT positively relates to improvements in intermediate business processes and these intermediate business processes positively relate to the overall financial performance of firms in a developing country.
Understanding information technology’s (ITs) contribution to business value is an imperative issue, and while we have attempted to untangle the relationship between IT and business value with some success, our knowledge of specific factors leading to ITs contribution to business value still remains limited. In this paper we propose that complementing IT resources, by establishing a sound IT platform with capable organisational resources may aid in ITs ability to contribute to business value. We suggest that performance measurement of this contribution be undertaken at the business process level first, and then mapped through to firm level performance measurement to obtain a better understanding of the path of IT business value contribution.
The epidemiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) has evolved considerably during the past several years. The term LUTS describes a distinct phenotype and allows for a broad epidemiologic description of urinary symptoms at a population level. Although it is becoming the preferred term for studying urinary symptoms in populations, LUTS remains interconnected with BPH in the literature. The incidence and prevalence of BPH and LUTS are increasing rapidly as the US population ages. BPH and LUTS are associated with serious medical morbidities, an increased risk of falls, depression, diminished health-related quality of life, and billions of dollars in annual health care costs. Although age and genetics play important roles in the etiology of BPH and LUTS, recent insights at the population le...
Marked on-road cycle lanes are a relatively inexpensive means of providing for cycling; however, their use in New Zealand has been questioned both in terms of their safety and their effectiveness in attracting more people to take up cycling. While both questions have been previously researched locally, the findings have been rather inconclusive. A recent Engineering Masters research project investigated the relative effects on cycle count and crash numbers of installing a series of cycle lanes. Twelve routes installed in Christchurch during the mid-2000s were analysed, together with some control sites. Cycle count data from a series of route locations and dates were used to establish cycling trends before and after installation. These were also compared against cycle crash numbers along these routes during the same periods. The resul...
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has been implicated in cellular processes that control cell adhesion, migration, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. FRNK (FAK-related nonkinase) is the autonomously expressed, noncatalytic C-terminal portion of FAK. When ectopically expressed in cells, FRNK has been shown to act as a negative regulator of FAK activity, inhibiting cell spreading, migration, and cell cycle progression. The mechanisms that regulate FRNK expression during embryonic development and the functional role of FRNK in normal cell homeostasis remain poorly understood. Herein we show that FRNK expression in chicken cells is directed by an alternative promoter residing within an intron of FAK, positioned 3′ of the exon encoding sequences for the catalytic domain and 5′ of the exon encoding sequences for the C-terminal domain of FAK (e...
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a histological diagnosis associated with unregulated proliferation of connective tissue, smooth muscle and glandular epithelium. BPH may compress the urethra and result in anatomic bladder outlet obstruction (BOO); BOO may present as lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), infections, retention and other adverse events. BPH and BOO have a significant impact on the health of older men and health-care costs. As the world population ages, the incidence and prevalence of BPH and LUTS have increased rapidly. Although non-modifiable risk factors – including age, genetics and geography – play significant roles in the etiology of BPH and BOO, recent data have revealed modifiable risk factors that present new opportunities for treatment and prevention, including sex steroid hormones, the metabolic syndrome and...
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