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http://librarysearch.auckland.ac.nz/primo_library/libweb/action/display.do?fn=search&doc=uoa_voyager1959988&vid=UOA2_A
The mixing of the photon with a hypothetical sterile paraphotonic state would have consequences on the cosmological propagation of photons. The absence of distortions in the optical spectrum of distant Type Ia supernovae allows to extend by two orders of magnitude the previous limit on the Lorentz-violating parameter $\delta$ associated to the photon-paraphoton transition, extracted from the abscence of distortions in the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background. The new limit is consistent with the interpretation of the dimming of distant Type Ia supernovae as a consequence of a nonzero cosmological constant. Observations of gamma-rays from active galactic nuclei allow to further extend the limit on $\delta$ by ten orders of magnitude.
Comment: 10 pages, 4 Postscript figures, use epsfig, amssymb
The mixing of the photon with a hypothetical sterile paraphotonic state would have consequences on the cosmological propagation of photons. Observations of gamma-rays from active galactic nuclei in GLAST and MAGIC will open a new domain in the search for such a phenomenon.
This review traces some of the key features of the folding of beta-lactamases and their relevance to the way proteins fold in general. Studies on the enzymes have highlighted the nature and role of equilibrium and transient condensed states. The kinetics of folding are multiphasic, and when monitored by acrylamide quenching of the tryptophan fluorescence, an early phase provides evidence for the transient accumulation of a nonnative intermediate involving burial of tryptophan in a nonpolar environment. Intermediate phases can be understood in terms of progressive folding of different parts of the molecule. The later, slow phases are associated with proline isomerization in the TEM-1 enzyme and, in its P167T mutant form, with isomerization from trans to cis of the E166 T167 peptide bond. Coupled with kinetic and X-ray crystallographic s...
We present a forecast of dark energy constraints that could be obtained from a large sample of distances to Type Ia supernovae detected and measured from space. We simulate the supernova events as they would be observed by a EUCLID-like telescope with its two imagers, assuming those would be equipped with 4 visible and 3 near infrared swappable filters. We account for known systematic uncertainties affecting the cosmological constraints, including those arising through the training of the supernova model used to fit the supernovae light curves. Using conservative assumptions and Planck priors, we find that a 18 month survey would yield constraints on the dark energy equation of state comparable to the cosmic shear approach in EUCLID: a variable two-parameter equation of state can be constrained to ~0.03 at z~0.3. These constraints are ...
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