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We analyze the dynamics of Free Electron Laser (FEL) devices, operating with a bunched beam exhibiting a longitudinal phase space correlation. We show that the presence of an energy-position correlation term is responsible for very interesting effects like an enhancement of the peak output power, a shortening of the laser pulses and an increase of the non linearly generated harmonic intensities. We conjecture that the mechanism is due to a kind of energy tapering effect associated with the correlation. We discuss the difference of the dynamics with respect to an ordinary undulator tapering and the relative advantages.
We review the theory of FEL oscillators operating with tapered undulators. We consider the case of a uniform tapering and introduce a parameter which characterizes the effect of the tapering on the gain and on the saturation intensity. We analyze the effect of the tapering on the FEL dynamics by including the pulse propagation effects too. We analyze the importance of tapering as a tool to model the optical pulse shapes and to control the higher harmonic intensities.
This report is a primer introduction on the sources of coherent syncrotron radiation from FELs compared to conventional lasers. Even though the underlying mechanisms are different, FELs can be considered a laser source to all effects. In fact FEL is based on the stimulated emission of virtual photons by a relativistic electron beam, passing through an undulator/wiggler, much like conventional lasers exploit the stimulated emission by an atomic/molecular system on which a population inversion has been realized. FEL operation is illustrated by means of the usual set of parameters (gain, saturation intensity...) used to describe the functioning of conventional lasers.
We discuss the conditions required for an optimal SASE FEL operation when bunch compression techniques are exploited to enhance the bunch peak current. We discuss the case of velocity bunching and magnetic bunch compression. With the reference to the latter technique we provide a quantitative estimate of the amount of laser heater power necessary to suppress the micro-bunching instability without creating any problem to the SASE dynamics
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