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FUKUTOME has once reported that isovaleric acid is an isovalthinuria inducer but isovaleric acid-1-C14 administered to a dog does not incorporate into urinary isovalthine and glutamic acid is most strongly labeled among acidic amino acids excreted. Recently, however, KUWAKI has found that liver homogenates of some animals can synthesize C14-labeled S-(isopropylcarboxymethyl) glutathione (GSIV) from isovaleric acid-1-C14 and glutathione, and that GSIV can be converted into isovalthine by kidney homogenate or glutathionase preparation4. For the elucidation of the above discrepancy, FUKUTOME's experiments were repeated by using isovaleric acid-methyl-C14 or-1-C14, and it was again found that these isotopic compounds did not significantly incorporate into urinary isovalthine.

Cytochrome P-450 is involved in the oxidative metabolism of a broad range of substrates. We have made a chimeric construct, pSN002, containing the cDNA for rabbit liver cytochrome P-450 (IIC14) under the control of the TR2' promoter for mannopine synthase in the Agrobacterium Ti plasmid. Nicotiana tabacum was transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring a cointegrated plasmid pSN002::pGV2260. The presence of mRNA and of the translated protein from the chimeric cytochrome P-450 gene in transgenic plants was confirmed by RNA blot hybridization and by Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses, respectively. The transformants in which the foreign cytochrome P-450 protein is expressed show marked phenotypic changes, notably a tendency rapidly to senesce. We detected 2-propenylpyrrolidine, a degradative metabolite of nicotine alk...
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