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In this letter we present an experimental realization of the quantum mechanics textbook example of two interacting electronic quantum states that hybridize forming a molecular state. In our particular realization, the quantum states themselves are fabricated as quantum dots in a molecule, a carbon nanotube. For sufficient quantum-mechanical interaction (tunnel coupling) between the two quantum states, the molecular wavefunction is a superposition of the two isolated (dot) wavefunctions. As a result, the electron becomes delocalized and a covalent bond forms. In this work, we show that electrical transport can be used as a sensitive probe to measure the relative weight of the two components in the superposition state as a function of the gate-voltages. For the field of carbon nanotube double quantum dots, the findings represent ...
We have studied the $1/f$ voltage noise of gold nano-contacts in electromigrated and mechanically controlled break-junctions having resistance values $R$ that can be tuned from 10 $\Omega$ (many channels) to 10 k$\Omega$ (single atom contact). The noise is caused by resistance fluctuations as evidenced by the $S_V\propto V^2$ dependence of the power spectral density $S_V$ on the applied DC voltage $V$. As a function of $R$ the normalized noise $S_V/V^2$ shows a pronounced cross-over from $\propto R^3$ for low-ohmic junctions to $\propto R^{1.5}$ for high-ohmic ones. The measured powers of 3 and 1.5 are in agreement with $1/f$-noise generated in the bulk and reflect the transition from diffusive to ballistic transport.
We use an electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometer to explore the non-equilibrium coherence of the electron waves within the edge-states that form in the integral quantum Hall effect. The visibility of the interference as a function of bias-voltage and transmission probabilities of the mirrors, which are realized by quantum point-contacts, reveal an unexpected asymmetry at finite bias when the transmission probability $T$ of the mirror at the input of the interferometer is varied between 0 and 100%, while the transmission probability of the other mirror at the output is kept fixed. This can lead to the surprising result of an increasing magnitude of interference with increasing bias-voltage for certain values of $T$. A detailed analysis for various transmission probabilities and different directions of the magnetic field demonstrates t...
We realized an equivalent Hanbury Brown and Twiss experiment for a beam of electrons in a two dimensional electron gas in the quantum Hall regime. A metallic split gate serves as a tunable beam splitter which is used to partition the incident beam into transmitted and reflected partial beams. The current fluctuations in the reflected and transmitted beam are fully anticorrelated demonstrating that fermions tend to exclude each other (anti-bunching). If the occupation probability of the incident beam is lowered by an additional gate, the anticorrelation is reduced and disappears in the classical limit of a highly diluted beam.
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