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The genomic sequences of many important Triticeae crop species are hard to assemble and analyse due to their large genome sizes, (in part) polyploid genomes and high repeat content. Recently, the draft genomes of barley and bread wheat were reported thanks to cost-efficient and fast NGS technologies. The genome of barley is estimated to be 5 Gb in size whereas the genome of bread wheat accounts for 17 Gb and harbours an allo-hexaploid genome. Direct assembly of the sequence reads and access to the gene content is hampered by the repeat content. As a consequence, novel strategies and data analysis concepts had to be developed to provide much-needed whole genome sequence surveys and access to the gene repertoires. Here we describe some analytical strategies that now enable structuring of massive NGS data generated and pave the way toward...
We used a novel approach that incorporated chromosome sorting, next-generation sequencing, array hybridization, and systematic exploitation of conserved synteny with model grasses to assign; similar to 86% of the estimated; similar to 32,000 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genes to individual chromosome arms. Using a series of bioinformatically constructed genome zippers that integrate gene indices of rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and Brachypodium distachyon in a conserved synteny model, we were able to assemble 21,766 barley genes in a putative linear order. We show that the barley (H) genome displays a mosaic of structural similarity to hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) A, B, and D subgenomes and that orthologous genes in different grasses exhibit signatures of positive selection in different lineages. We present a...
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