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Analysis of return and onwards migration flows has typically relied upon lifetime migration definitions. Both Canada and Australia have collected data on usual place of residence both one and five years prior to the census, which provide a richer source of information on return and onwards moves. Utilizing data drawn from complementary sources, this article examines the incidence, composition and spatial patterning of return and onwards migration at the state and provincial level in Canada and Australia over the period of 1986–1990–1991. Results indicate a high degree of symmetry in these processes between the two countries. While many of the findings are consistent with those derived from analysis of lifetime data, we find that one quarter to one third of return moves were to the original (1986) dwelling, indicating a planned return r...
In this paper we describe and contrast the age and spatial structures of migration identified by data collected over one-year and five-year time intervals, by focusing, in particular, on the generation and distribution components of age- and origin-destination-specific migration flows. We explore the contributions of primary, return, and onward migration defined by fixed interval migration data, and we outline a crude translation procedure for transforming the one-year migration flow data into an estimated five-year counterpart. The data used in this study represent several migration periods drawn from recent U.S. and Canadian censuses and surveys. Differences between the structures exhibited by U.S. and Canadian migration patterns, collected over one-year and five-year migration time intervals, are carefully examined and contrasted. V...
Throughout the 1960s–1980s, many steelworkers emigrated from the regions in and around Glasgow, Scotland, seeking better economic opportunities in other industrial cities, including Hamilton in Ontario, Canada. However, little is known about how this move affected the social networks of the steelworkers and their families at the time of immigration and how their social networks had evolved over time. Fifteen former Scottish steelworkers living in the Hamilton area and the daughter of one deceased steelworker were interviewed for this study. Immigration to Canada had clearly disrupted their social networks, as many experienced the loss of valued relationships with parents, neighbours, and co-workers left behind in Scotland. These losses led to homesickness for many steelworkers and their wives and had driven some families back to their ...
In this paper we analyse the distribution of family physician use in Canada to explore whether the stated goal of reasonable access to care has been achieved. We test hypotheses to see whether (a) variations in incidence and quantity of use are independent of need for care as proxied by self‐assessed health status and (b) any observed relationship between variations in use and need is independent of other population characteristics. Previous research has conceptual, statistical and data limitations which bring into question the validity of the findings. These limitations are addressed by using more appropriate data, a conditional model for service utilization and correction for self‐selectivity of users in the statistical analysis. Variations in need are identified as important and significant in explaining variations in both i...
We investigated the rates of initiation and completion of treatment for latent TB infection (LTBI), factors explaining nonadherence and interventions to improve treatment adherence in countries with low TB incidence.A systematic search was performed in PubMed and Embase. All included articles were assessed for risk of bias. A narrative synthesis of the results was conducted.There were 54 studies included in this review. The proportion of people initiating treatment varied from 24% to 98% and the proportion of people completing treatment varied from 19% to 90%. The main barriers to adherence included the fear or experience of adverse effects, long duration of treatment, financial barriers, lack of transport to clinics (for patients), and insufficient resources for LTBI control. While interventions like peer counseling, incentives,...
Eliminating tuberculosis (TB) in low-incidence countries is an important global health priority, and Canada has committed to achieve this goal. The elimination of TB in low-incidence countries requires effective management and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). This study aimed to understand and describe the system-level barriers to LTBI treatment for immigrant populations in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area, Ontario, Canada.A qualitative study that used purposive sampling to recruit and interview health system advisors and planners (n = 10), providers (n = 13), and clients of LTBI health services (n = 9). Data were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using content analysis.Low prioritization of LTBI was an overarching theme that impacted four dimensions of LTBI care: management, service delivery, he...
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