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The ability to control electronic properties of a material by externally applied voltage is at the heart of modern electronics. In many cases, it is the so-called electric field effect that allows one to vary the carrier concentration in a semiconductor device and, consequently, change an electric current through it. As the semiconductor industry is nearing the limits of performance improvements for the current technologies dominated by silicon, there is a constant search for new, non-traditional materials whose properties can be controlled by electric field. Most notable examples of such materials developed recently are organic conductors [1], oxides near a superconducting or magnetic phase transition [2] and carbon nanotubes [3-5]. Here, we describe another system of this kind - thin monocrystalline films of graphite - which exhibi...
We have studied temperature dependences of electron transport in graphene and its bilayer and found extremely low electron-phonon scattering rates that set the fundamental limit on possible charge carrier mobilities at room temperature. Our measurements have shown that mobilities significantly higher than 200,000 cm2/Vs are achievable, if extrinsic disorder is eliminated. A sharp (threshold-like) increase in resistivity observed above approximately 200K is unexpected but can qualitatively be understood within a model of a rippled graphene sheet in which scattering occurs on intra-ripple flexural phonons.
Comment: related to cond-mat/0410631 where preliminary data for this experimental system were reported
Comment: improved presentation of the theory part after referees comments; important experimental info added (see "note added in proof")
Comment: the final version is significantly different from the earlier 2006 version
There is an increasing amount of literature concerning electronic properties of graphene close to the neutrality point. Many experiments continue using the two-probe geometry or invasive contacts or do not control samples' macroscopic homogeneity. We believe that it is helpful to point out some problems related to such measurements. By using experimental examples, we illustrate that the charge inhomogeneity induced by spurious chemical doping or metal contacts can lead to large systematic errors in assessing graphene's transport properties and, in particular, its minimal conductivity. The problems are most severe in the case of two-probe measurements where the contact resistance is found to strongly vary as a function of gate voltage.
Graphene is considered to be a promising material for future electronics. The envisaged transistor applications often rely on precision cutting of graphene sheets with nanometer accuracy. In this letter we demonstrate graphene-based quantum dots created by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) with tip-assisted electrochemical etching. This lithography technique provides resolution of about 20 nm, which can probably be further improved by employing sharper tips and better humidity control. The behavior of our smallest dots in magnetic field has allowed us to identify the charge neutrality point and distinguish the states with one electron, no charge and one hole left inside the quantum dot.
We demonstrate the application of graphene as a support for imaging individual biological molecules in transmission electron microscope (TEM). A simple procedure to produce free-standing graphene membranes has been designed. Such membranes are extremely robust and can support practically any sub-micrometer object. Tobacco mosaic virus has been deposited on graphene samples and observed in a TEM. High contrast has been achieved even though no staining has been applied.
Devices made from graphene encapsulated in hexagonal boron-nitride exhibit pronounced negative bend resistance and an anomalous Hall effect, which are a direct consequence of room-temperature ballistic transport on a micrometer scale for a wide range of carrier concentrations. The encapsulation makes graphene practically insusceptible to the ambient atmosphere and, simultaneously, allows the use of boron nitride as an ultrathin top gate dielectric.
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