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This paper addresses the impact of telephone transmission channels on automatic speech recognition (ASR) performance. A real-time simulation model is described and implemented, which allows impairments that are encountered in traditional as well as modern (mobile, IP-based) networks to be flexibly and efficiently generated. The model is based on input parameters which are known to telephone network planners; thus, it can be applied without measuring specific network characteristics. It can be used for an analytic assessment of the impact of channel impairments on ASR performance, for producing training material with defined transmission characteristics, or for testing spoken dialogue systems in realistic network environments. In the present paper, we present an investigation of the first point. Two speech recognizers which are integrat...
This paper addresses the impact of telephone transmission channels on automatic speech recognition (ASR) performance. A real-time simulation model is described and implemented, which allows impairments that are encountered in traditional as well as modern (mobile, IP-based) networks to be flexibly and efficiently generated. The model is based on input parameters which are known to telephone network planners; thus, it can be applied without measuring specific network characteristics. It can be used for an analytic assessment of the impact of channel impairments on ASR performance, for producing training material with defined transmission characteristics, or for testing spoken dialogue systems in realistic network environments. In the present paper, we present an investigation of the first point. Two speech recognizers which are integrat...
The thermovoltage of a chaotic quantum dot is measured using a current heating technique. The fluctuations in the thermopower as a function of magnetic field and dot shape display a non-Gaussian distribution, in agreement with simulations using Random Matrix Theory. We observe no contributions from weak localization or short trajectories in the thermopower.
Floor space is an important determinant of aggression and stress in group-housed sows, and the aim of the present experiment was to comprehensively examine the effects of floor space in the range of 1.45 to 2.90 m/sow from mixing until 27 d after insemination on aggression, stress, and reproduction of group-housed sows. A previous experiment on the effects of floor space indicated spatial variability across and along the research facility in both sow aggression and stress. To minimize this spatial variability within the research facility, similar-sized pens but with varying groups sizes (10-20) in 4 separate blocks of 3 contiguous pens within each of 9 time replicates (180 sows/replicate) were used to examine 6 space allowances (1.45-2.9 m/sow). Space treatments were appropriately randomized to pens. Although it may be argued tha...
We present the results of an experiment where amorphous carbon was irradiated by femtosecond x-ray free electron laser pulses. The 830 eV laser pulses induce a phase transition in the material which is characterized ex-situ. The phase transition energy threshold is determined by measuring the surface of each irradiated area using an optical Nomarski microscope. The threshold fluence is found to be 282 +/- 11 mJ/cm^2, corresponding to an absorbed dose at the surface of 131 +/-5 meV/atom. Atomic force microscopy measurements show volume expansion of the irradiated sample area, suggesting a solid to solid phase transition. Deeper insight into the phase transition is gained by using scanning photoelectron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Photoelectron microscopy shows graphitization, i.e. modification from sp3 to sp2 hybridizatio...
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) allows one to study functional connectivity in the brain by acquiring fMRI data while subjects lie inactive in the MRI scanner, and taking advantage of the fact that functionally related brain regions spontaneously co-activate. rfMRI is one of the two primary data modalities being acquired for the Human Connectome Project (the other being diffusion MRI). A key objective is to generate a detailed in vivo mapping of functional connectivity in a large cohort of healthy adults (over 1000 subjects), and to make these datasets freely available for use by the neuroimaging community. In each subject we acquire a total of 1. h of whole-brain rfMRI data at 3. T, with a spatial resolution of 2. ×. 2. ×. 2. mm and a temporal resolution of 0.7. s, capitalizing on recent developments in sli...
We studied experimentally and theoretically the structural transition of diamond under an irradiation with an intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet laser (XUV) pulse of 24–275 eV photon energy provided by free-electron lasers. Experimental results obtained show that the irradiated diamond undergoes a solid-to-solid phase transition to graphite, and not to an amorphous state. Our theoretical findings suggest that the nature of this transition is nonthermal, stimulated by a change of the interatomic potential triggered by the excitation of valence electrons. Ultrashort laser pulse duration enables to identify the subsequent steps of this process: electron excitation, band gap collapse, and the following atomic motion. A good agreement between the experimentally measured and theoretically calculated damage thresholds for the XUV range s...
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