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The dynamic characteristics of a tip oscillating in the nc-AFM mode in close vicinity to a Cu(100)-surface are investigated by means of phase variation experiments in the constant amplitude mode. The change of the quality factor upon approaching the surface deduced from both frequency shift and excitation versus phase curves yield to consistent values. The optimum phase is found to be independent of distance. The dependence of the quality factor on distance is related to 'true' damping, because artefacts related to phase misadjustment can be excluded. The experimental results, as well as on-resonance measurements at different bias voltages on an Al(111) surface, are compared to Joule dissipation and to a model of dissipation in which long-range forces lead to viscoelastic deformations.
Amplitude-modulation atomic force microscopy (AM-AFM) is used to determine the retention properties of CaF2 nanoparticles adsorbed on mica and on tooth enamel in liquid. From the phase-lag of the forced cantilever oscillation the local energy dissipation at the detachment point of the nanoparticle was determined. This enabled us to compare different as-synthesized CaF2 nanoparticles that vary in shape, size and surface structure. CaF2 nanoparticles are candidates for additives in dental care products as they could serve as fluorine-releasing containers preventing caries during a cariogenic acid attack on the teeth. We show that the adherence of the nanoparticles is increased on the enamel substrate compared to mica, independently of the substrate roughness, morphology and size of the particles.
To date, there has been no satisfactory explanation for the observation that interictal uptake of the glucose analog [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is consistently reduced in the temporal robe ipsilateral to the seizure focus in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, We examined the hypothesis that regional differences in tracer uptake in temporal lobe epilepsy reflect regional differences in the lumped constant (Lambda). Methods: In 9 control subjects and 10 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, we obtained regional estimates of Lambda by expressing Lambda in terms of transfer coefficients for FDG and parameters which are likely to remain constant throughout both the brain and under different functional states, Results: In the patients, Lambda was lower in the temporal lobe ipsilateral to the epileptic focus (0.53 +/- 0.06; p < 0...
A simulation of an atomic force microscope operating in the constant amplitude dynamic mode is described. The implementation mimics the electronics of a real setup including a digital phase-locked loop (PLL). The PLL is not only used as a very sensitive frequency detector, but also to generate the time-dependent phase shifted signal driving the cantilever. The optimum adjustments of individual functional blocks and their joint performance in typical experiments are determined in detail. Prior to testing the complete setup, the performances of the numerical PLL and of the amplitude controller were ascertained to be satisfactory compared to those of the real components. Attention is also focused on the issue of apparent dissipation, that is, of spurious variations in the driving amplitude caused by the nonlinear interaction occurring b...
When used to measure blood flow, water leaves a residue in the vascular bed, which may contribute to the calculation of increased blood flow during functional activation of brain tissue. To assess the magnitude of this contribution with the two-compartment positron emission tomography (PET) method, we mapped the water clearance (K1) of the brain as an index of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the apparent vascular distribution of nonextracted H215O (Vo). The latter map represented mainly the cerebral arterial and arteriolar volume. We also prepared subtraction maps (DeltaK1, DeltaVo) of the response to vibrotactile stimulation of the fingertips of the right hand of six normal volunteers. Using magnetic resonance (MR) images of all subjects, the data were rendered into Talairach's stereotaxic coordinates and the averaged subtraction ...
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