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Accurately measuring per-hop packet dynamics on an Internet path is difficult. Currently available techniques have many well-known limitations that can make it difficult to accurately measure per-hop packet dynamics. Much of the difficulty of per-hop measurement is due to the lack of protocol support available to measure an Internet path on a per-hop basis. This thesis classifies common weaknesses and describes a protocol for per-hop measurement of Internet packet dynamics, known as the IP Measurement Protocol, or IPMP. With IPMP, a specially formed probe packet collects information from intermediate routers on the packet's dynamics as the packet is forwarded. This information includes an IP address from the interface that received the packet, a timestamp that records when the packet was received, and a counter that records the arrival...
Originally cellular networks handled calls and short messages only. Today, this has been extended to handle packet data services. However now the world is moving towards an entirely IP based mobile service based on LTE and the Evolved Packet Core. Security becomes even more important than before. Cellular networks will be using the same technology that runs the Internet, which could leave them open to a range of threats from the air interface side of the network, especially with the popularity of smart phones and USB "Mobile Broadband" modems. This thesis investigated a range of network protocols used in the Evolved Packet Core, as well as the possibility of attacks against these networks and their protocols and whether such attacks can be achieved, especially from cheap handheld devices. Further this thesis presents results showing th...
Any future extensions or updates will be published as a part of WAND's ongoing research projects: http://research.wand.net.nz
Rural New Zealand has poor access to broadband Internet. The CRCnet project at the University of Waikato identified point-to-point wireless technology as an appropriate solution, and built networks for rural communities. The project identified viable solutions using low-cost wireless technologies and commodity hardware, allowing them to establish general construction guidelines for planning rural wireless networks. The CRCnet researchers speculated that these general construction guidelines had simplified the wireless network problem to a point at which it seemed feasible to embed the guidelines within a software tool. A significant observation by the CRCnet researchers was that community members are collectively aware of much of the local information that is required in the planning process. Bringing these two ideas together, this th...
Network measurement stands at an intersection in the development of the science. We explore possible futures for the area and propose some guidelines for the development of stronger measurement techniques. The paper concludes with a discussion of the work of the NLANR and WAND network measurement groups including the NLANR Network Analysis Infrastructure, AMP, PMA, analysis of Voice over IP traffic and separation of HTTP delays into queuing delay, network latency and server delay.
Simulation of the Internet has long been understood to be very challenging mostly because of its scale, diversity and the lack of detailed knowledge of many of its components. However, two recent developments (macroscopic topology discovery and large memory servers) mean that some of these problems are now more tractable. Although problems like the lack of detailed link information remain, models are are useful for some problems that require an understanding of how an application interacts with the Internet as a whole. The paper presents is-0, an Internet Simulator. is-0 derives its model of Internet topology directly from the output of an Internet topology mapping project. Efficient design allows is-0 to simulate packet-by-packet, hop-by-hop behaviour at Internet scale. Validation of is-0, an example application and performance measur...
Distributed file systems have become popular because they allow information to be shared be between computers in a natural way. A distributed file system often forms a central building block in a distributed system. Currently most distributed file systems are built using a communications interface that transfers messages about files between machines. This thesis proposes a different, lower level, communications interface. This `block-based' interface exchanges information about the blocks that make up the file but not about the files themselves. No other distributed file system is built this way. By demonstrating that a distributed file system can be implemented in a block-based manner, this thesis opens the way for many advances in distributed file systems. These include a reduction of the processing required at the server, unif...
Object migration in wireless sensor networks has the potential to reduce energy consumption for a wireless sensor network mesh. Automated migration reduces the need for the programmer to perform manual static analysis to find an efficient layout solution. Instead, the system can self-optimise and adjust to changing conditions. This paper describes an automated, transparent object migration system for wireless sensor networks, implemented on a micro Java virtual machine. The migration system moves objects at runtime around the sensor mesh to reduce communication overheads. The movement of objects is transparent to the application developer. Automated transparent object migration is a core component of Hydra, a distributed operating system for wireless sensor networks that is currently under development. Performance of the system under a...
Much current simulation of TCP makes use of simplified models of TCP, which is a large and complex protocol with many variations possible between implementations. We use direct execution of real world network stacks in the network simulator ns-2 to compare TCP performance between implementations and reproduce existing work. A project called The Network Simulation Cradle provides the real world network stacks and we show how it can be used for performance evaluation and validation. There are large differences in performance between simplified TCP models and TCP implementations in some situations. Such differences are apparent in some reproduced research, with results using the Network Simulation Cradle very different from the results produced with the ns-2 TCP models. In other cases, using the real implementations gives very similar res...
Network simulation is used widely in network research to test new protocols, modifications to existing protocols and new ideas. The tool used in many cases is ns-2. The nature of the ns-2 protocols means that they are often based on theoretical models that might not behave in the same way as real networks. This paper presents the Network Simulation Cradle which allows real world network stacks to be used in a wrapper that allows the stacks protocols to be used in the ns-2 network simulator. The network stacks from the open source operating systems Linux, FreeBSD and OpenBSD are included in the simulation cradle as well as a stack designed for embedded systems, lwIP. Our results show that ns-2's TCP implementations do not match observed behaviour from real machines in some respects and using the Network Simulation Cradle produces result...
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