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El crecimiento de Internet y la proliferación de información multidominio de forma pública ha propiciado la aparición de nuevas oportunidades en entornos muy dispares, principalmente en el ámbito de la investigación. Además, desde que se planteara el concepto de Web Semántica se han venido desarrollando un nutrido conjunto de herramientas y estándares ideados para facilitar la interoperabilidad en la World Wide Web. Este factor adicional posibilita el acceso a datos compartidos y su integración de forma mucho más abierta y comprensible, siendo la tendencia esperada la de acercarse poco a poco a la completa homogeneización de los contenidos disponibles en Internet. En este trabajo de tesis doctoral se presenta un método en cinco fases para la mediación semántica y sintáctica en sistemas de bases de datos integradas. Los lenguajes y está...
Los avances logrados en la última década en los métodos y técnicas para la obtención de información mediante secuenciación genética de muestras orgánicas han supuesto una revolución en el área de la investigación biomédica. La disponibilidad de nuevas fuentes de datos abre vías novedosas de trabajo para investigadores que ya están dando sus frutos con técnicas mejoradas de diagnóstico y nuevos tratamientos para enfermedades como el cáncer. El cambio ha sido tan drástico que, por contra, los métodos empleados para acceder a la información han quedado obsoletos. Para remediar esta situación se ha realizado un gran esfuerzo en el campo de la informática biomédica con el objetivo de desarrollar herramientas adecuadas para este reto tecnológico. Así, la “revolución” genética ha ido acompañada de un importante esfuerzo en el desarrollo de si...
La rápida evolución experimentada en los últimos años por las tecnologías de Internet ha estimulado la proliferación de recursos software en varias disciplinas científicas, especialmente en bioinformática. En la mayoría de los casos, la tendencia actual es publicar dichos recursos como servicios accesibles libremente a través de Internet, utilizando tecnologías y patrones de diseño definidos para la implementación de Arquitecturas Orientadas a Servicios (SOA). La combinación simultánea de múltiples servicios dentro de un mismo flujo de trabajo abre la posibilidad de crear aplicaciones potencialmente más útiles y complejas. La integración de dichos servicios plantea grandes desafíos, tanto desde un punto de vista teórico como práctico, como por ejemplo, la localización y acceso a los recursos disponibles o la coordinación entre ellos. ...
Friedman’s article ‘What informatics is and isn’t’, presents a necessary and timely analysis of the field of informatics.
Having all been involved in proposal evaluation, we believe the studies indicate that a text matching analysis of research proposals could reduce plagiarism in subsequent publications. For instance, when European Commission evaluators have met in the past to evaluate research proposals, they received printed copies which had to be returned before the panel members left, and had no computer access during deliberations. A plagiarism detector using text-mining methods could be used instead of the current security measures. Such a system could, in principle, detect similarities to previous submissions and uncited sources using advanced document segmentation. Only official agencies have access to confidential proposals and the funds to experiment with automated plagiarism-detectors. It is important that they should investigate these approac...
Access to a large number of remote data sources has boosted research in biomedicine, where different biological and clinical research projects are based on collaborative efforts among international organizations. In this scenario, the authors have developed various methods and tools in the area of database integration, using an ontological approach. This paper describes a method to automatically generate preprocessing structures (ontologies) within an ontology-based KDD model. These ontologies are obtained from the analysis of data sources, searching for: (i) valid numerical ranges (using clustering techniques), (ii) different scales, (iii) synonym transformations based on known dictionaries and (iv)typographical errors. To test the method, experiments were carried out with four biomedical databases―containing rheumatoid arthritis, gen...
In this paper we present a knowledge engineering approach to automatically recognize and extract genetic sequences from scientific articles. To carry out this task, we use a preliminary recognizer based on a finite state machine to extract all candidate DNA/RNA sequences. The latter are then fed into a knowledge-based system that automatically discards false positives and refines noisy and incorrectly merged sequences. We created the knowledge base by manually analyzing different manuscripts containing genetic sequences. Our approach was evaluated using a test set of 211 full-text articles in PDF format containing 3134 genetic sequences. For such set, we achieved 87.76% precision and 97.70% recall respectively. This method can facilitate different research tasks. These include text mining, information extraction, and information retrie...
A large number of biomedical resources are publicly available over the Internet. This number grows every day. Biomedical researchers face the problem of locating, identifying and selecting the most appropriate resources according to their interests. Some resource indexes can be found in the Internet, but they only provide information and links related to resources created by the owner institution of each website. In this paper we propose a novel method for extracting information from the literature and create a Resourceome, i.e. an index of biomedical resources (databases, tools and services) in a semi-automatic way. In this approach we consider only the information provided by the abstracts of relevant papers in the area. Building a comprehensive resource index is the first step towards the development of new methodologies for the aut...
Over the last years, and particularly in the context of the COMBIOMED network, our biomedical informatics (BMI) group at the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid has carried out several approaches to address a fundamental issue: to facilitate open access and retrieval to BMI resources —including software, databases and services. In this regard, we have followed various directions: a) a text mining-based approach to automatically build a “resourceome”, an inventory of open resources, b) methods for heterogeneous database integration —including clinical, -omics and nanoinformatics sources—; c) creating various services to provide access to different resources to African users and professionals, and d) an approach to facilitate access to open resources from research projects
Background. Over the last years, the number of available informatics resources in medicine has grown exponentially. While specific inventories of such resources have already begun to be developed for Bioinformatics (BI), comparable inventories are as yet not available for Medical Informatics (MI) field, so that locating and accessing them currently remains a hard and time-consuming task. Description. We have created a repository of MI resources from the scientific literature, providing free access to its contents through a web-based service. Relevant information describing the resources is automatically extracted from manuscripts published in top-ranked MI journals. We used a pattern matching approach to detect the resources? names and their main features. Detected resources are classified according to three different criteria: functio...
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