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Human MutY homolog (hMYH), an adenine DNA glycosylase, can effectively remove misincorporated adenines opposite template G or 8-oxoG bases, thereby preventing G:C→T:A transversions. Human cell extracts possess the adenine DNA glycosylase activity of hMYH and can form protein–DNA complexes with both A/G and A/8-oxoG mismatches. hMYH in cell extracts was shown to be the primary binding protein for A/G- and A/8-oxoG-containing DNA substrates by UV cross-linking. However, recombinant hMYH expressed in bacteria has much weaker glycosylase and substrate-binding activities towards A/G mismatches than native hMYH. Moreover, the protein–DNA complex of bacterially expressed hMYH migrates much faster than that of native hMYH in a non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel. Dephosphorylation of native hMYH reduces the glycosylase activity on A...
The mutY homolog gene (mutYDr) from Deinococcus radiodurans encodes a 39.4-kDa protein consisting of 363 amino acids that displays 35% identity to the Escherichia coli MutY (MutYEc) protein. Expressed MutYDr is able to complement E. coli mutY mutants but not mutM mutants to reduce the mutation frequency. The glycosylase and binding activities of MutYDr with an A/G-containing substrate are more sensitive to high salt and EDTA concentrations than the activities with an A/7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (GO)-containing substrate are. Like the MutYEc protein, purified recombinant MutYDr expressed in E. coli has adenine glycosylase activity with A/G, A/C, and A/GO mismatches and weak guanine glycosylase activity with a G/GO mismatch. However, MutYDr exhibits limited apurinic/apyrimidinic lyase activity and can form only weak covalent protein-DNA c...
Escherichia coli MutY is an adenine and a weak guanine DNA glycosylase active on DNA substrates containing A/G, A/8-oxoG, A/C or G/8-oxoG mismatches. A truncated form of MutY (M25, residues 1–226) retains catalytic activity; however, the C-terminal domain of MutY is required for specific binding to the 8-oxoG and is critical for mutation avoidance of oxidative damage. Using alkylation interference experiments, the determinants of the truncated and intact MutY were compared on A/8-oxoG-containing DNA. Several purines within the proximity of mismatched A/8-oxoG show differential contact by the truncated and intact MutY. Most importantly, methylation at the N7 position of the mismatched 8-oxoG and the N3 position of mismatched A interfere with intact MutY but not with M25 binding. The electrostatic contacts of MutY and M25 with the A/8-ox...
Escherichia coli MutY is an adenine and a weak guanine DNA glycosylase involved in reducing mutagenic effects of 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-guanine (8-oxoG). The C-terminal domain of MutY is required for 8-oxoG recognition and is critical for mutation avoidance of oxidative damage. To determine which residues of this domain are involved in 8-oxoG recognition, we constructed four MutY mutants based on similarities to MutT, which hydrolyzes specifically 8-oxo-dGTP to 8-oxo-dGMP. F294A-MutY has a slightly reduced binding affinity to A/G mismatch but has a severe defect in A/8-oxoG binding at 20°C. The catalytic activity of F294A-MutY is much weaker than that of the wild-type MutY. The DNA binding activity of R249A-MutY is comparable to that of the wild-type enzyme but the catalytic activity is reduced with both A/G and A/8-oxoG mismatches. The bio...
A set of 18 plasmid subclones of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus genome supports expression from a late viral promoter in transient expression assays (J. W. Todd, A. L. Passarelli, and L. K. Miller, J. Virol. 69:968-974, 1995). Using this set of plasmids, we have assigned a role for each of the 18 genes required for optimal late gene expression with respect to its involvement at the levels of transcription, translation, and/or DNA replication. RNase protection analyses demonstrated that all of the known late expression factor genes (lefs) affected the steady-state level of reporter gene RNA. Thus, none of the lefs appeared to be specifically involved in translation. A subset of the lefs supported plasmid replication; ie-1, lef-1, lef-2, lef-3, p143, and p35 were essential for plasmid replication, while ie-n, lef-7...
A plasmid library of 18 late expression factor (LEF) genes (LEF library) from the baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) supports transient expression from a late viral promoter in the SF-21 cell line, derived from Spodoptera frugiperda. We found, however, that this LEF library was unable to support expression from the same promoter in the TN-368 cell line, derived from Trichoplusia ni, which is also permissive for AcMNPV replication. To identify the additional factor(s) required for expression in TN-368 cells, we cotransfected the LEF library with clones representing portions of the AcMNPV genome not represented in the LEF library. A single additional gene was identified; this gene corresponded to ORF70 of the complete AcMNPV sequence and potentially encodes a 34-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide. Because o...
The host cell-specific factor 1 gene (hcf-1) of the baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) is required for the efficient replication and/or stability of reporter plasmids carrying an AcMNPV-derived origin of DNA replication in a cell-specific manner; hcf-1 is required for reporter plasmid replication or stability in TN-368 cells, a cell line derived from the cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni, but not in IPLB-SF-21 (SF-21) cells, a cell line derived from the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (A. Lu and L. K. Miller, J. Virol. 69:6265-6272, 1995). To further define the function of hcf-1, recombinant viruses with null mutations in hcf-1 were constructed in SF-21 cells and the phenotype of the mutants was determined in selected cell lines as well as in insect larvae. In S.frugiperda larvae and SF-21 cells, th...
A protein homologous to the Escherichia coli MutY glycosylase, referred to as mtMYH, has been purified from calf liver mitochondria. SDS–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, western blot analysis as well as gel filtration chromatography predicted the molecular mass of the purified calf mtMYH to be 35–40 kDa. Gel mobility shift analysis showed that the purified mtMYH formed specific binding complexes with A/8-oxoG, G/8-oxoG and T/8-oxoG, weakly with C/8-oxoG, but not with A/G and A/C mismatches. The purified mtMYH exhibited DNA glycosylase activity removing adenine mispaired with G, C or 8-oxoG and weakly removing guanine mispaired with 8-oxoG. The mtMYH glycosylase activity was insensitive to high concentrations of NaCl and EDTA. The purified mtMYH cross-reacted with antibodies against both intact MutY and a peptide of human MutY homolo...
The known roles for calcium-binding proteins in developmental signaling pathways are reviewed. Current information on the calcium-binding characteristics of three classes of cell-surface developmental signaling proteins (EGF-domain proteins, cadherins and integrins) is presented together with an overview of the intracellular pathways downstream of these surface receptors. The developmental roles delineated to date for the universal intracellular calcium sensor, calmodulin, and its targets, and for calcium-binding regulators of the cytoskeleton are also reviewed.
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