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The toxicities of six dithiocarbamates: bis(dimethyl thiocarbamoyl) disulfide (thiram), zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate (ziram), ferric dimethyldithiocarbamate (ferbam), bis(dimethyl thiocarbamoyl) ethylene bis(dithiocarbamate) (triaram), sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate (NaDEDC), and sodium ethylene bis(dithiocarbamate) (nabam) were determined in the chick embryo. The substances were dissolved in propylene glycol and injected in the air chamber prior to incubation. Injection in the yolk sac on any day of development or in the air chamber after the first day was unsuitable for the assessment of an LD50. With the exception of nabam, the dithiocarbamates were extremely toxic for the early chick embryo. Cysteine injected simultaneously in the air chamber protected the embryos from the toxic effect of thiram or ziram but not from the action of ...
The lethality of histamine was studied in two groups of young rats fed diets low and normal in magnesium content. The plasma magnesium levels of the two groups on the eight day were 0.39 mg/100 ml for the rats on the low magnesium diet and 2.11 mg/100 ml for the group on the normal diet. The LD50's (and the 95 per cent confidence limits) for both groups for histamine administered intravenously were 412 (349–486) and 530 (449–625) mg histamine computed as free base/kg body weight, respectively (p < 0.05). The data indicate that a reduction in total body magnesium enhances the toxic effects of histamine in this species.
Tecoram, when administered at doses of 0.01, 0.1, 1 or 10 mg per egg in propylene glycol or in saline to chick embryos caused paralysis, shortening of the extremities, muscular atrophy, dwarfing and death. Microscopically there were signs of peripheral neuropathy, mainly confined to the distal parts of the peripheral nerves, and muscular atrophy. This investigation shows that the chick embryo may be a suitable experimental model for study of the neurotoxic effect of dithiocarbamates.
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