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The resorcylic acid lactones zearalenone (1), α-zearalenol (2), β-zearalenol (3), α-zearalanol (zeranol) (4), β-zearalanol (taleranol) (5), and zearalanone (6) were converted to their glucuronides on a preparative scale in good yields. Reactions were conducted with bovine uridine 5′-diphosphoglucuronyl transferase (UDPGT) as catalyst and uridine 5′-diphosphoglucuronic acid (UDPGA) as cofactor. The glucuronides were isolated by column chromatography and characterized by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Although the principal products were 4-O-glucuronides (i.e., linkage through a phenolic hydroxyl), significant quantities of the 6′-O-glucuronides (i.e., linkage through the aliphatic hydroxyl) of alcohols 2, 4, and 5 were also isolated. In the case of 3, the 2-O-glucuronide was isolated as the minor product. Overall isolated yield...
Yessotoxins from a large-scale culture (226 L) of Protoceratium reticulatum strain CAWD129 were harvested by filtration followed by solid-phase extraction. The extract was purified by column chromatography over basic alumina and reverse-phase flash chromatography to afford pure yessotoxin (193 mg). Isolation of yessotoxin was greatly facilitated by selection of a strain which did not produce analogues that interfered with yessotoxin isolation. In addition to yessotoxin, numerous minor yessotoxins were detected by LC-MS in other fractions. From one of these, an early eluting minor analogue with the same molecular weight as yessotoxin and a similar mass spectrometric fragmentation pattern was isolated. This analogue was identified by NMR and mass spectrometry as a novel yessotoxin analogue containing a furan ring in the side chain. This ...
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