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[[abstract]]在此研究中,我將以音韻部門的移位理論(PF movement),對漢語中動詞與形容詞的重疊現象(reduplication),以及正反問句(A-not-A question)提出一致性的分析。漢語中的重疊現象有各種不同的語音形式。單音節詞語的語音重疊形式為AA,而雙音節詞語的語音重疊形式包含:AAB、ABB、ABAB、以及AABB四種。另一方面,漢語的正反問句有A-not-AB和AB-not-A兩種主要形式。在音韻部門移位的理論框架之下,漢語的重疊現象與正反問句的所有語音形式擁有一致的衍生過程。在動詞中,重疊詞素(reduplication morpheme)的功能為暫時時貌(delimitative aspect),藉由向下的移位與離它最近的句法詞素(morphosyntactic word)做合併,進而產生動詞的重疊形式。此外,在形容詞中,重疊詞素扮演程度詞素(degree morpheme)的功能,同樣藉由向下的移位與離它最近的句法詞素做合併,衍生出形容詞的重疊形式。然而,正反問句的衍生比重疊形式更為複雜。我認為在正反問句的衍生過程中經歷了兩階段的移位。首先,A-not-A 運符向下移位與離它最近的句法詞素做合併。第二階段,A-not-A 運符將決定複製的範圍,以衍生出各種不同的語音形式。本論文的貢獻如下:第一、我證明了在漢語中音韻部門的移位現象非常豐富。第二、我為句法-詞法界面做了更多元的詮釋。在此論文中,我顯示了句法-詞法界面具有豐富的語言現象,值得日後更深入的探討與研究。
[[abstract]]在本文中,我們主要檢視Pustejovsky(1995)所提出的詞彙語義理論「生成詞彙理論(The Generative Lexicon)」及其中最重要的語義轉換機制「語義誘迫(Tye Coercion)」。我們由中英文例證的研究中發現,語義誘迫作用在英文裡存在於詞彙之中,但在中文裡卻必須藉由事件結構在句法中呈現。也就是說,輕動詞(Light Verb)在英文中存在於詞彙內部,而在中文裡面則是在句法中進行。這一點我們也進一步在中文動詞「翻」的事件結構、句法及語義的多樣性中得到驗證。最後,我們提出Dynamic Generative Lexicon的概念,認為Pustejovsky的生成詞彙理論內容太過僵化,對於句法的問題以及語義的選擇限制(selectional restriction)描述過於簡略。 根據(Pustejovsky)的生成詞彙理論,詞彙本身應只具有單一語義,表面句型上所出現的邏輯差異是因為詞彙之間可進行語義誘迫機制-這種語義轉換作用被稱為語義誘迫(type coercion);藉由語義誘迫機制的作用,詞彙可迫使其補語進行語義上的延伸及轉換,因此,在語義誘迫(type coercion)的作用下,謂語即使在表層句法結構中僅僅後接一名詞組,深層結構裡面仍有可能內含事件謂語(evenet predicate),藉以完整呈現出具子的真正語義。然而,在我們對中文的例子的檢視中,卻發現中文詞彙不具有英文詞彙的功能,語義的言展(extensional semantics)必須藉由外顯的事件謂語及詞組結構來進行。 從英文和中文的例子對比,我們可以看出這兩者之間最大的不同點在於,英文的詞彙可以迫使後面的補語建構出一個內化的事件結構;而中文不行。在中文裡面補語的成分中事件結構都必須明白的顯現出來,顯示出在中文裡面事件結構對於語義呈現的重要性。因此,當詞彙本身與後接的補語產生語義延展時,中文的詞彙本身沒有像英文那樣強大的決定力,可以...
[[abstract]]在本文中,我們主要檢視Pustejovsky(1995)所提出的詞彙語義理論「生成詞彙理論(The Generative Lexicon)」及其中最重要的語義轉換機制「語義誘迫(Tye Coercion)」。我們由中英文例證的研究中發現,語義誘迫作用在英文裡存在於詞彙之中,但在中文裡卻必須藉由事件結構在句法中呈現。也就是說,輕動詞(Light Verb)在英文中存在於詞彙內部,而在中文裡面則是在句法中進行。這一點我們也進一步在中文動詞「翻」的事件結構、句法及語義的多樣性中得到驗證。最後,我們提出Dynamic Generative Lexicon的概念,認為Pustejovsky的生成詞彙理論內容太過僵化,對於句法的問題以及語義的選擇限制(selectional restriction)描述過於簡略。 根據(Pustejovsky)的生成詞彙理論,詞彙本身應只具有單一語義,表面句型上所出現的邏輯差異是因為詞彙之間可進行語義誘迫機制-這種語義轉換作用被稱為語義誘迫(type coercion);藉由語義誘迫機制的作用,詞彙可迫使其補語進行語義上的延伸及轉換,因此,在語義誘迫(type coercion)的作用下,謂語即使在表層句法結構中僅僅後接一名詞組,深層結構裡面仍有可能內含事件謂語(evenet predicate),藉以完整呈現出具子的真正語義。然而,在我們對中文的例子的檢視中,卻發現中文詞彙不具有英文詞彙的功能,語義的言展(extensional semantics)必須藉由外顯的事件謂語及詞組結構來進行。 從英文和中文的例子對比,我們可以看出這兩者之間最大的不同點在於,英文的詞彙可以迫使後面的補語建構出一個內化的事件結構;而中文不行。在中文裡面補語的成分中事件結構都必須明白的顯現出來,顯示出在中文裡面事件結構對於語義呈現的重要性。因此,當詞彙本身與後接的補語產生語義延展時,中文的詞彙本身沒有像英文那樣強大的決定力,可以...
A micromechanics analysis for the formation and propagation of slip bands on the free surface of a polycrystal under monotonic loading is presented. For the growth of slip bands, the analysis satisfies the conditions of both equilibrium and displacement continuity, as well as the relation between slip and the resolved shear stress throughout the polycrystal. Numerical calculations show how the microstress field causes the concentration of plastic deformation in discrete sliding bands and give results which are in good qualitative agreement with known slip band observations on aluminum single crystals.
Metal rectangular plate bending analysis with nonlinear strain hardening, creep yielding stress and deflection expressions as functions of position and time
Bending of rectangular plates loaded beyond elastic limit, treating plastic strains as equivalent lateral loads and edge moments
This paper presents a low-power VLSI neural processor that has been developed for high-speed vision processing based upon the frequency-sensitive self-organization (FSO) neural algorithm.
Following a major beach closure due to bacterial contamination, a survey of beachgoers was conducted in Huntington Beach, California in 1999 to assess perceived health risk from swimming. Responses were compared to those of beachgoers at the unaffected Laguna Main Beach. No significant differences were found in risk perception. Respondents were aware of the closures (83%), yet the majority (83%) felt the water was safe for swimming. Proximity of residence to the beach was strongly associated with closure awareness (Spearman's rho = 0.427,p < 0.0001). Although 83% of respondents felt that water quality was important in deciding to go to the beach, only 25% of respondents who did not plan to swim cited pollution or contamination as a reason not to swim. Most respondents (70%) trusted local health agency officials' decisions about when to...
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