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Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) represent a unique system for exploring phenomena at the nanoscale and are also expected to play a critical role in future electronic and optoelectronic devices. Here we review recent advances in growth, characterization, assembly and integration of chemically synthesized, atomic scale semiconductor NWs. We first introduce a general scheme based on a metal-cluster catalyzed vapour–liquid–solid growth mechanism for the synthesis of a broad range of NWs and nanowire heterostructures with precisely controlled chemical composition and physical dimension. Such controlled growth in turn results in controlled electrical and optical properties. Subsequently, we discuss novel properties associated with these one-dimensional (1D) structures such as discrete 1D subbands formation and Coulomb blockade effects as well ...
Research at the interface between nanoscience and biology has the potential to produce breakthroughs in fundamental science and lead to revolutionary technologies. In this review, we focus on nanoelectronic/biological interfaces. First, we discuss nanoscale field effect transistors (nanoFETs) as probes to study cellular systems, including the realization of nanoFET comparable in size to biological nanostructures involved in communication using synthesized nanowires. Second, we overview current progress in multiplexed extracellular sensing using planar nanoFET arrays. Third, we describe the design and implementation of three distinct nanoFETs used to realize the first intracellular electrical recording from single cells. Fourth, we present recent progress in merging electronic and biological systems at the 3D tissue level by using macro...
We report the first experimental observation of a semiconductor/liquid junction whose open circuit voltage Voc is controlled by bulk diffusion/recombination processes. Variation in temperature, minority-carrier diffusion length, and/or in majority-carrier concentration produces changes in the Voc of the n-Si/CH3OH interface in accord with bulk recombination/diffusion theory. Under AM2 irradiation conditions, the extrapolated intercept at 0 K of Voc vs T plots yields activation energies for the dominant recombination process of 1.1–1.2 eV, in accord with the 1.12-eV band gap of Si. A crucial factor in achieving optimum performance of the n-Si/CH3OH interface is assigned to photoelectrochemical oxide formation, which passivates surface recombination sites at the n-Si/CH3OH interface and minimizes deleterious effects of pinning of the Fer...
Dislocation-free decoration images containing up to 80,000 vortices have been obtained on high quality Bi$_{2}$Sr$_{2}$CaCu$_{2}$O$_{8+x}$ superconducting single crystals. The observed flux line lattices are in the random manifold regime with a roughening exponent of 0.44 for length scales up to 80-100 lattice constants. At larger length scales, the data exhibit nonequilibrium features that persist for different cooling rates and field histories.
Carbon nanotubes, which have intrinsically small diameters and high aspect ratios and which buckle reversibly, make potentially ideal structures for use as tips in scanning probe microscopies, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM)1, 2, 3, 4. However, the present method of mechanically attaching nanotube bundles for tip fabrication is time consuming and selects against the smallest nanotubes, limiting the quality of tips. We have developed a technique for growing individual carbon nanotube probe tips directly, with control over the orientation, by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from the ends of silicon tips. Tips grown in this way may become widely used in high-resolution probe microscopy imaging.
Carbon nanotubes are potentially ideal atomic force microscopy probes because they can have diameters as small as one nanometer, have robust mechanical properties, and can be specifically functionalized with chemical and biological probes at the tip ends. This communication describes methods for the direct growth of carbon nanotube tips by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using ethylene and iron catalysts deposited on commercial silicon-cantilever-tip assemblies. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy measurements demonstrate that multiwalled nanotube and single-walled nanotube tips can be grown by predictable variations in the CVD growth conditions. Force-displacement measurements made on the tips show that they buckle elastically and have very small (≤100 pN) nonspecific adhesion on mica surfaces in air. Ana...
Controlling decoherence is the most challenging task in realizing quantum information hardware. Single electron spins in gallium arsenide are a leading candidate among solid- state implementations, however strong coupling to nuclear spins in the substrate hinders this approach. To realize spin qubits in a nuclear-spin-free system, intensive studies based on group-IV semiconductor are being pursued. In this case, the challenge is primarily control of materials and interfaces, and device nanofabrication. We report important steps toward implementing spin qubits in a predominantly nuclear-spin-free system by demonstrating state preparation, pulsed gate control, and charge-sensing spin readout of confined hole spins in a one-dimensional Ge/Si nanowire. With fast gating, we measure T1 spin relaxation times in coupled quantum dots approach...
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