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80 records were found.

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of computer usage on the demand for paper and paperboard products. A log-linear model is developed to analyze the effect of computer usage on the demand for four categories of paper, newsprint, printing/writing paper, packaging paper and household/sanitary paper. The analysis is divided into two parts. The first part is US monthly analysis. We create computer number index as a measurement for computer usage. Monthly data (from Jan 1992 to Jun 2005) are collected to estimate the effect for four categories of paper. The monthly estimation results support the hypothesis that the increasing usage of computer has a significantly negative effect on the demand for printing/writing paper, and a significantly positive effect on the demand for packaging paper. But it doesn't provide enough evide...
Solid state amorphization, and in particular crystalline to amorphous transformation, can be observed in metallic alloys, semiconductors, intermetallics, minerals, and also molecular crystals when they undergo irradiation, hydrogen gas dissolution, thermal interdiffusion, mechanical alloying, or mechanical milling. Although the amorphization mechanisms may be different, the transformation occurs due to the high level of disorder introduced into the material. Milling induced solid state amorphization is proposed to be the result of accumulation of crystal defects, specifically dislocations, as the material is subjected to large deformations during the high energy process. Thus, understanding the deformation mechanisms of crystalline materials will be the first step in studying solid state amorphization in crystalline materials, which no...
I used multivariate statistical methods, including cluster analysis (CA), discriminant analysis (DA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to evaluate water quality in the Ying River Basin, the largest tributary of Huai River, China. A total of 12 water quality parameters were measured at each of 15 sites from 2008???2010 (540 observations), allowing investigation of temporal and spatial variation and indication of potential pollution sources. Hierarchical CA classified the 15 monitoring sites into three groups, representing heavily, moderately and least polluted sites. Three parameters (temperature, pH and TP) distinguished temporal variation with close to 67.4% correct assignment in the DA, separating summer from winter and spring-fall. In the spatial variation analysis, the DA used eight parameters (temperature, pH, DO, CODMn, CODC...
Many central banks often focus on underlying measures of inflation when assessing inflation trends. This paper compares the accuracy of underlying measures of inflation relative to the headline rates by using Australia data. It is found that the underlying measures did have smaller errors in predicting the long-term trend in inflation than the quarterly headline rate due to the volatility in the headline rate. As compared to the year-ended headline rate, the statistical test results, however, support only the measure of market prices excluding volatile items, not the others. There is some weak evidence of the weighted median measure outperforming the headline rate in the sub-period after 1993. With respect to directional accuracy, the test statistics cannot reject the null hypothesis of an equal probability correctly predicting the mov...
This paper examines the relationship between the general price level and the relative price of fuel by measuring correlation from VAR forecast errors. The results suggest a significant positive correlation between quarterly changes in the relative price of fuel and the CPI, at least in the short to medium term from two to four years. The finding has important implications for measuring the long-term trend in inflation as relative price changes in fuel contain important information about future inflation.
Many central banks often focus on underlying measures of inflation when assessing inflation trends. This paper compares the accuracy of underlying measures of inflation relative to the headline rates by using Australian data. It is found that the underlying measures did have smaller errors in predicting the long-term trend in inflation than the quarterly headline rate in the sample period 1977—2001 and the inflation targeting subperiod starting from 1993, due to the large volatility of the headline rate. As compared to the year-ended headline rate, the statistical test results , however, support only the measure of market prices excluding volatile items, not the others. There is some weak evidence of the weighted median measure outperforming the headline rate in the subperiod after 1993. With respect to directional accuracy, the test s...
This paper is an empirical investigation into the impact of public capital on the private sector’s economic activity in Australia. In particular, it is assumed that the contribution of public capital to private factor productivity is subject to congestion. New data sets of capital stocks and private output are constructed for the Australian economy. By estimating flexible functional forms of private sector production functions with congestion in public capital services, the paper shows that public capital is productive in private production but is subject to congestion. A one per cent decrease in the public capital output ratio would result in about 0.5 per cent decrease in private output. Empirical evidence also suggests that the restriction of constant returns to scale over private inputs, labour and private capital, and public input...
This paper tests whether there is evidence that two distinct Beveridge curves for the skilled and unskilled aggregate markets exist. The results support the hypothesis and specifically find that the unskilled labour segment is less efficient at matching workers with jobs, primarily due to higher labour turnover rates. Higher turnover rates can be indicative of a poor match between employers' and jobseekers' expectations. The results also indicate that other shift variables, such as the replacement rate, the incidence of long-term unemployment, the immigration rate and the market circumstances in the skilled segment were only important for the unskilled segment. Copyright Blackwell Publishing Ltd/University of Adelaide and Flinders University of South Australia 2003.
This article evaluates the effects of budget consolidation on the Australian economy in the 1990s. As the economy recovered from the 1991-92 recession, the need to improve the fiscal balance to lift national saving became the dominant influence on fiscal policy. The article argues that spending cuts by the Australian federal government announced in 1996 had immediate effects on financial markets, with reduced long-term interest rates of about 50 basis points in 1996-97. Using a modified version of the Treasury macroeconometric model of the Australian economy (TRYM), the article simulates the net macroeconomic effects of the expenditure cuts, fiscal consolidation and lower long-term interest rates. The article finds that the program of budget consolidation had a sizeable short- and medium-term impact on the economy, raising Gross Domest...
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