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Mass balances of ash and potassium for a fluidized bed combustor were performed incorporating measurement uncertainties. The total output mass of ash or a chemical element should be equal to the mass in the input fuel; however, this is not often achieved. A realistic estimation of recovery uncertainty can support the reliability of a mass balance. Estimation of uncertainty helps to establish a reliable evaluation of the recovery ratio of ash mass and elemental mass. This may clarify whether any apparent lack in closing the mass balance can be attributed to uncertainties. The evaluation of measurement uncertainty for different matrices, namely coal, biomass, sand and ashes from different streams was based on internal quality control data and external quality control data, namely analysis of samples from proficiency tests or use of a cer...
Three species of biomass origin (straw pellets, olive cake and wood pellets) and two coals from different countries (Coal Polish and Coal Colombian) have been studied to understand the fate of their ash forming matter during the combustion process and to investigate the influence of co-firing biomass with coal. Three different approaches to investigate the ash behaviour were employed: (1) chemical fractionation analysis to evaluate the association/reactivity of ash forming elements in the fuels as a prediction tool, (2) establishment of elements partitioning in ash streams produced in the combustion and co-combustion trials, and (3) evaluation of enrichment factors of elements in the ash streams. The chemical fractionation analysis was applied to all fuels used to evaluate how the association/reactivity of elements making up ash may in...
Char residues produced in co-pyrolysis of different wastes were characterized through chemical and toxicity tests. A fraction of the solid chars was treated by extraction with dichloromethane. Different volatilit fractions present in the extracted and non extrated char were evaluated. A selected group of heavy metals was determined in both chars. Chars were subjected to the leaching test ISO/TS 21268-2 and resulting eluates were further characterized by determining a group of inorganic parameters and concentrations of several organic contaminants. An ecotoxicological characterization was performed by using the bio-indicator Vibrio fischeri. The chemical and ecotoxicological characterization led to a classification on the chars as ecotoxic
The present work is devoted to the study of chars obtained in the co-pyrolysis of plastics, biomass and tyres wastes. The chars were extracted with several organic solvents in order to assess the more efficient in redicing the organic load of trhe chars and, therefore their toxicity. The ability of each selected extractant to remove toxic pollutants was evaluated by comparing the extracts yield and thoroughly characterizing the different crude extarcts obtained by combining chemical analysis and toxicity biossays. Also, the mineral composition of the treated and non treated chars was assessed. The results will allow to conclude which solvent should be used in the decontamination of the pyrolysis chars.
The replacement of fossil fuels by renewable fuels can contribute to improve the environmental performance of the power production and to move forward in the sustainability way. The experience has shown that the availability of alternative fuels can be an obstacle for its extensive use for energy production, since biomass is not always available. The use of non-hazardous wastes may be a good alternative to biomass, mainly if they are economically unattractive for recycling or if they present a high cost for land-filling. The co-firing of non-hazardous wastes with coal is, therefore, a subject of great interest for the sustainability of energy production and the reduction of the emissions of fossil greenhouse gases. The use of these wastes for energy is promising if they combine well with other fuels during the conversion process for en...
The high amounts of solid waste produced in industrial installations and in urban centers is a complex problem of today's society. The traditional strategies for solid waste transformation and disposal include and filling or incineration. Other approaches are being exploited namely waste selective collection and recycling on the energetic valorization of solid wastes through pyrolysis. In the pyrolytic process, the wastes are converted into a gaseous and liquid phase that can be used in energy production or as feedstock in chemistry industries. A solid residue (char) is also produced in a proportion that depends on the pyrolysis conditions. Even when the operating condiions are optimized in order to minimize the solid fraction, a resonable amount of chars are obtained. Those chars are mainly composed of a carbon-rich matrix that conta...
Carbonaceous solid products resulting from thermochemical processes (pyrolysis, gasification), commonly known as chars, are emerging as low-cost sorbents of metallic contaminants, being their effectiveness already demonstrated in several studies (Inyang et al., 2012; Fuente-Cuesta et al., 2012; Ko³odyñska et al., 2012; Quek and Balasubramanian, 2009; Devecia and Kar, 2013). Given the fact that the commercial viability of pyrolysis and gasification plants for the treatment and valorisation of waste streams are increasingly being demonstrated, it is expected that large amounts of solid chars will be available in a near future, as by-products or as main products (pyrolysis-carbonization). Chars may possess several characteristics which turn them effective as heavy metals sorbents: aromatic carbon matrix with relatively porous structures...
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