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A photon counting pixel read-out chip for medical X-ray imaging with energy windowing is presented. It consists of 32×32 pixels of 200 m×200 m size, each of them contains two discriminators and two 18-bit counters. Both discriminator thresholds can be adjusted individually for good image homogeneity and a circuit has been designed to avoid threshold drift. Measurements on the noise behaviour, threshold variation and threshold drift are shown.
Comment: 33 pages, 9 figures, 1 table. The Astrophysical Journal, 2009, accepted
Galileo in-situ dust measurements have shown that the Galilean moons are surrounded by tenuous dust clouds formed by collisional ejecta from their icy surfaces, kicked up by impacts of interplanetary micrometeoroids. The majority of the ejecta dust particles have been sensed at altitudes below five between 0.5 and 1 micron, just above the detector threshold, indicating a size distribution decreasing towards bigger particles. their parent bodies. They carry information about the properties of the surface from which they have been kicked up. In particular, these grains may carry organic compounds and other chemicals of biological relevance if they exist on the icy Galilean moons. In-situ analysis of the grain composition with a sophisticated dust analyzer instrument flying on a Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter can provide important information ...
Comment: Invited poster at the International Symposium on the Development of Detectors for Particle, AstroParticle and Synchrotron Radiation Experiments, Stanford CA (SNIC06) 6 pages, 12 eps figures
Recent Ulysses observations from the Sun's equator to the poles reveal fundamental properties of the three-dimensional heliosphere at the maximum in solar activity. The heliospheric magnetic field originates from a magnetic dipole oriented nearly perpendicular to, instead of nearly parallel to, the Sun'rotation axis. Magnetic fields, solar wind, and energetic charged particles from low-latitude sources reach all latitudes, including the polar caps. The very fast high-latitude wind and polar coronal holes disappear and reappear together. Solar wind speed continues to be inversely correlated with coronal temperature. The cosmic ray flux is reduced symmetrically at all latitudes.
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