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Comment: 10 pages, 4 figures
This article creates a meeting ground between two distinct and fairly elaborate research traditions dealing with social “transitions”: the Dutch societal transitions management approach, and the Viennese sociometabolic transitions approach. Sharing a similar understanding of sustainability transitions—namely as major transformational changes of system characteristics—and a background epistemology of complex systems, autopoeisis, and evolutionary mechanisms, they address the subject from different angles: one approach asks how transformative changes happen and what they look like, and the other approach tries answer the question of how to bring them about. The Viennese approach is almost exclusively analytical and deals with a macro (“landscape”) level of human history with a time scale of decades to centuries; the Dutch approach is bas...
Cl gas solubility in molten lead chloride- potassium chloride mixtures, temperature and KCl concentration dependence and existence of exchange process
Comment: Version accepted for publication by Astroparticle Physics; 13 pages, 5 figures
Comment: 14 pages, 6 figures
New redshift measurements for the 24 Abell galactic clusters are presented. The optical observations are described and applied to the cluster X-ray luminosity function, and the results are used to delimit the cluster contribution to the diffuse X-ray background (DXRB). The evolution of the X-ray luminosity function is then investigated. It is found that while simple two-parameter analytic forms do not fit this function very well, three-parameter forms such as the exponential times power law do fit it very well. Future redshift observations will probably not change the volume emissivity significantly, but they may in a statistically significant way affect the parameters of analytic fits which define the shape of the luminosity function. The contribution of rich clusters to the DXRB in the 2-6 keV range is 5.2 percent. Future redshift ob...
Many studies of superclusters of galaxies have been conducted, taking into account also superclusters representing candidate binary cluster systems. The present investigation is concerned with further studies of potential binary cluster systems, giving attention to a sample of six cluster pairs, in which the redshifts and X-ray luminosities of each member of a pair have been measured. One of the objectives of the investigation was related to a search for X-ray evidence that the clusters interact in these potentially binary systems. A second objective was to provide a measure of the mass of hot gas in the clusters. Two new systems in which the two clusters may have a physical association were found.
A summary of results of Einstein satellite observations of clusters of galaxies is provided, and X-ray luminosities or upper limits for 27 clusters are reported. Newly reported clusters with interesting morphologies are presented, and a brief discussion of the data in relation to theories of cluster formation and evolution is given.
Measurements of redshifts and velocity dispersions are presented for Abell clusters A539, A1185, and A1228, and the southern clusters S1840-623, S1904-618, S1908-566, and S2000-561. All these clusters have reported X-ray luminosities or upper limits. Finding charts for the clusters are presented, and the measured heliocentric redshifts are given along with redshifts obtained by other investigators. Comments are made about each cluster. The technique used to derive the redshifts is summarized.
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