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Melanoma is a common cancer of humans. Global incidence varies significantly based on a number of risk factors. To a large extent these risk factors have been determined from hypotheses arising from the global distribution, including risk factors such as skin colour and ultraviolet radiation. This chapter discusses the distribution of melanoma, risk factors and preventive measures.
Tafenoquine is an 8-aminoquiniline related to primaquine with preclinical activity against a range of malaria species. We treated two acute cases of vivax malaria with tafenoquine (800 mg over three days) atone, instead of conventional chloroquine (1500 mg over three days) and primaquine (420 mg over 14 days). In addition to the convenience of this regimen, the rapid parasite clearances observed, coupled with a good clinical response and lack of recrudescence or relapse, indicate that further investigation of tafenoquine in the treatment of vivax malaria is warranted. (C) 2004 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tafenoquine was used to treat Plasmodium vivax malaria cases who had previously failed treatment with chloroquine and primaquine. Chloroquine was followed by a loading dose of tafenoquine (200 mg base/day for 3 days) and 200 mg a week was given for 8 weeks. One of 27 treated patients relapsed after 6 months of observation. A standard course of chloroquine administered with 8 weeks of tafenoquine may be more effective than chloroquine with primaquine (22.5 mg/day for 14 days) in preventing additional P. vivax relapses. Larger studies are required to optimize the combination, but our findings suggest that an extended use of tafenoquine may be required to prevent relapses of primaquine-tolerant strains of P. vivax malaria.
Background: Soldiers based in Townsville, Australia, returned from East Timor following peacekeeping operations during the wet season of 1999 to 2000. This represented the potential to import dengue virus into north Queensland, a dengue receptive area of Australia. This article seeks to outline the measures taken by the Australian Defence Force (ADF) to prevent local transmission and to present the outcomes. Methods: Soldiers returning to north Queensland were provided with education on dengue fever and in the fortnight before return, their living areas were subjected to intensive vector control measures, in order to reduce the risk of acquisition of dengue. They were further encouraged to present early with any febrile illness following their return to Townsville. Provisionally diagnosed dengue cases were notified to the state publ...
An outbreak of malaria first developed within Second Battalion Royal Australian Regiment, a forward (Australian) Battalion of the International Force in East Timor in October 1999. Before the Battalion redeployed to Australia, 17 cases had occurred and in the 12 months following return to Australia another 89 cases have occurred, including 18 single recurrences and 2 second recurrences. The overall attack rate for this deployment of 4 months, mostly including the wet season of Timor, has been 13.5%. The attack rate for the Battalion (5/7 Royal Australian Regimen) subsequently occupying this ground (for approximately 4 months and including the 12 months following redeployment) was 5.2%. Investigation of the initial outbreak and comparisons with the subsequcnt Battalion suggest major risk factors for contracting malaria were side effects...
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