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Hedonic price models for determining marginal implicit prices of open-space amenities and nonresidential land use were estimated using housing data from the census. Alternative model specifications were compared to evaluate the effects of aggregating land-use data by alternative levels of census geography as well as the use of different sample sizes of census blocks. It was determined that land use is best aggregated at the block group level and that entire populations or very large sample sizes of census blocks should be used with hedonic models. Copyright 2001 by Kluwer Academic Publishers
From the Apollo landings on the Moon, to robotic surveys of the Sun and the planets, to the compelling images captured by advanced space telescopes, U.S. achievements in space have revolutionized humanity s view of the universe and have inspired Americans and people around the world. These achievements also have led to the development of technologies that have widespread applications to address problems on Earth. As the world enters the second century of powered flight, it is appropriate to articulate a new vision that will define and guide U.S. space exploration activities for the next several decades. Today, humanity has the potential to seek answers to the most fundamental questions posed about the existence of life beyond Earth. Telescopes have found planets around other stars. Robotic probes have identified potential resources on ...
Large shifts in species ranges have been predicted under future climate scenarios based primarily on niche-based species distribution models. However, the mechanisms that would cause such shifts are uncertain. Natural and anthropogenic fires have shaped the distributions of many plant species, but their effects have seldom been included in future projections of species ranges. Here, we examine how the combination of climate and fire influence historical and future distributions of the ponderosa pine–prairie ecotone at the edge of the Black Hills in South Dakota, USA, as simulated by MC1, a dynamic global vegetation model that includes the effects of fire, climate, and atmospheric CO2 concentration on vegetation dynamics. For this purpose, we parameterized MC1 for ponderosa pine in the Black Hills, designating the revised model as MC1-W...
We present a novel approach to calculating Low-Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) intensities for ordered molecular adsorbates. First, the intra-molecular multiple scattering is computed to obtain a non-diagonal molecular T-matrix. This is then used to represent the entire molecule as a single scattering object in a conventional LEED calculation, where the Layer Doubling technique is applied to assemble the different layers, including the molecular ones. A detailed comparison with conventional layer-type LEED calculations is provided to ascertain the accuracy of this scheme of calculation. Advantages of this scheme for problems involving ordered arrays of molecules adsorbed on surfaces are discussed.
The adsorption of carbon monoxide on the Pt{110} surface at coverages of 0.5 ML and 1.0 ML was investigated using quantitative low-energy electron diffraction (LEED IV) and density-functional theory (DFT). At 0.5 ML CO lifts the reconstruction of the clean surface but does not form an ordered overlayer. At the saturation coverage, 1.0 ML, a well-ordered p(2×1) superstructure with glide line symmetry is formed. It was confirmed that the CO molecules adsorb on top of the Pt atoms in the top-most substrate layer with the molecular axes tilted by ±22° with respect to the surface normal in alternating directions away from the close packed rows of Pt atoms. This is accompanied by significant lateral shifts of 0.55 Å away from the atop sites in the same direction as the tilt. The top-most substrate layer relaxes inwards by −4% with res...
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