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Environmental flow assessment and maintenance are relatively new practices, especially in developing countries. This paper describes the desktop assessment of environmental flows in a river with insufficient data on ecological features and values. In this study, the potential environmental flows in a typical river reach of the Shahr Chai River in Iran were investigated using a newly developed hydrological method (flow duration curve (FDC) shifting) and Global Environmental Flow Calculator software. This approach uses monthly flow data to develop an environmental FDC and to generate flow requirements corresponding to different features of the river ecosystem. Results were compared with those from four alternative hydrological methods: the desktop reserve model (DRM), Tennant, low-flow index, and flow duration curve analysis (FDCA). Comp...
It has been previously observed that optimization of the 1-call@$k$ relevance objective (i.e., a set-based objective that is 1 if at least one document is relevant, otherwise 0) empirically correlates with diverse retrieval. In this paper, we proceed one step further and show theoretically that greedily optimizing expected 1-call@$k$ w.r.t.\ a latent subtopic model of binary relevance leads to a diverse retrieval algorithm that shares many features of existing diversification approaches. This new derivation of diverse retrieval is also complementary to a variety of recent research results that have aimed to formally define assumptions that promote diverse retrieval for alternate set-based relevance objectives such as Average Precision and Reciprocal Rank; the derivation presented here for Expected 1-call@$k$ provides a novel perspectiv...
The method of sampling unit was applied according to the importance of the park in urban landscape structure with the initial purpose of planning method to maximize environmental sustainability and recognizing the structural elements within the park. SWOT technique has been applied to analyze collected data and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats of affected areas. We used Geographical Information System (GIS) tools to apply neighborhood functions for extracting correspondent data in structural elements of landscape. The results of present study show that the volume of green spaces decreases in the surrounding area due to construction and farmlands activities.
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