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This dissertation reviewed extant literature about McGuire’s distinctiveness theory, the Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion, in-group bias theory, racial identity, race source effects, and cultural cues pertaining to targeting African American and Latino consumer markets. Mexican and African American informants were interviewed after viewing magazine advertisements targeted to the other group to determine if distinctiveness to the other’s images and cultural cues occurred. Observations were also reported from ethnographic excursions across Des Moines, Iowa, a city and state where African Americans and Mexicans are numerical rarities or minorities. Results revealed that the majority of informants spontaneously delivered responses that reflected salience with the other group. In fact, both groups saw themselves as a part of a gre...
Although there has been much research regarding the portrayals of African Americans in Advertising, the central focus has been on categorizing this race as a physiologically homogeneous group. In other fields of research such as, psychology and sociology, there is a stream of study that investigates differentiations in how Blacks are perceived by others based on variations in skin tone within the spectrum of this race. This research suggests that examining skin tone within race may provide a more accurate insight into the effect that ethnicity plays on interacting factors. The focus of this dissertation, therefore, is to extend this research focus on skin tone to the field of Advertising. Specifically, this study examines whether the skin tone of a Black model in an advertisement affects specific outcome measures of advertising: attitu...
The United Colors of Benetton is a high-end clothing company that has been deemed as an iconic brand because of their non-traditional print advertisements. From the late 1980s to the early 1990s, the Benetton campaign used photographic images to symbolize social (and sometimes controversial) messages pertaining to race, gender, religion, sexuality and multiculturalism. Benetton claims that their advertising campaign sought to promote diversity, worldwide. However, others believed that their true motive was to gain revenue by placing sensitive social, political cultural issues and messages into an exchange system. The varieties in opinions about Benetton’s motives are highly dependent on how consumers interpret their advertisements. This paper will not only examine the ways in which consumers encode and decode social messages in Benetto...
The current economic climate presents many challenges to advertisers. In 2009, advertising spending in the United States dropped 12.3 percent, forcing advertisers to focus on campaigns that prove a quick return on investment. As average time spent online continues to increases, so is the Internet’s contribution to society and the economy. Advertising budgets are being shifted online to reflect the growing importance of the Internet, and much of these budgets are being spent using advertising networks. These networks act as the intermediaries between advertisers and Web publishers and make online advertising accessible and affordable for small and large budgets alike. This paper explores the current state of Internet advertising with a close focus on advertising networks. The goal of this paper is to educate on the basics of online adve...
Once considered a minority, Hispanics today are becoming a growing majority of the U.S. population. In fact, Hispanics have become the nation's largest minority group. The growth of the Hispanic market has numerous implications for marketing and communication decisions. Hispanics residing in the U.S. consume products and services on a daily basis. They buy groceries, appliances, event tickets and interact constantly with companies and their messages. Not only is it crucial for U.S. marketers to recognize how valuable this market is to them, but Hispanics are a multifaceted market that must be well understood to ensure a good foundation is built prior to developing communications strategies. More specifically, marketers need to be aware of how Hispanics, often bilingual, process language and how this impacts the effectiveness of communi...
Mobile technologies are one of the fastest growing and most widely adopted technologies in this current era. Parks Associates forecasts 4.5 billion mobile phone users worldwide by 2013, with many people using these devices as gateways for entertainment services, community information, and social networking. There will be over 140 million U.S. consumers paying for mobile broadband, which will extend video, communication, networking, and support services to various devices. The mobile advertising industry was seen as the poor relation of Internet advertising in terms of revenue, if not of hype. Yet mobile offers advertisers many attractive possibilities. No other device is as personal, interactive and constantly within reach as a cell phone. And cell phones let advertisers target whole new parameters, such as location and context. So, do...
Culture integrates more than ideology and tradition. These cultural elements are supplementary factors that unite under certain conditions to assist in the development and understanding of what is right, wrong and/or expected within a group. Ideology specifically has been found to influence and construct societal norms, and play a vital role in the conscious and subconscious interactions of individuals. These ideologies (superficial and non-superficial) have implications for the interpersonal interactions between individuals within and between the same cultural groups, as well as implications for organizational and professional development within academic and professional settings. This study will examine culture and ideology through an investigation of environment and its relationship to ethnic identity development. In addition, the s...
Hollywood: The Sequel provides an historical account of film sequelization and its importance to the domestic entertainment industry from a marketing standpoint. Based on an extensive literature revenue, it was conjectured that the ratio of domestic sequel‐generated revenue to overall domestic revenue from the 1950s‐2000s would follow a classic diffusion pattern. Utilizing historical trade data from Variety magazine, Excel and SPSS databases were developed to determine the percentage of sequel‐generated domestic box office revenue from 1954‐2006, relative to overall revenue. The formal hypothesis was that from the 1950s‐2000s the adoption of sequels in the 70‐highest‐performing films follows a diffusion s‐curve. The goodness‐of‐fit of the historical dataset (N=3,710) with the s‐curve estimation‐algorithm was measured against the goodne...
This dissertation contributes to the body of literature on consumer behavior and marketing communication by exploring how brand mentions in music influence memory, attitudes, and purchase intentions. Even though the definitions of product placement have expanded to include a variety of media, there is no scholarly literature that explores this phenomena. More importantly, there are conceptual differences between product placement and brand mentions that differentiate this form of promotion. Thus, two studies were conducted to test the influence of brand mentions on hip-hop consumers ages 18-36. Study One (n=204) used a hip-hop song created specifically for this research with four brands in the lyrics with varying degrees of prominence in the song and congruence with hip-hop culture. Three fictitious press releases were also used to man...
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